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JL £ 







MAY 26 1899 




This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society for 

the Year 1895. 









(the late) 




Vol. VIII. 









The present volume concludes the Geometras. A 
plate has been added containing a number of figures 
which were not given in their proper places in pre- 
ceding volumes, but which it has since been thought 
advisable to reproduce. The same may be said of the 
description of the larva of Sterrha sacraria which 
appears at the end. 

I have again to thank Mr. G. C. Bignell for the list 
of parasites relating to the species treated of in the 
volume; and Mr. W. Denison Roebuck for his assist- 
ance in copying out the descriptions, etc. 


Crosland Hall, 


January 13th, 1899. 



Emmelesia affinitata . . 1 

— alchemillata 


— albulata 


— decolorata 


— taBniata 


— unifasciata 


— blandiata 


Eupithecia consignata 


— pulchellata 


— centaureata 


— succenturiata . 


— plumbeolata 


— ' pygmaeata 


— jasioneata 


— lariciata 


— irriguata 


— fraxinata 


— denotata (pimpinellata) 


— innotata 


— extensaria 


— campanulata 


— subciliata 


— togata 


— pumilata 


Collix sparsata 


Lobophora liexapterata 


— viretata 


Thera juniperata . 


— coniferata (simulata) 


— variata (obeliscata) 


— firmaria 


Ypsipetes ruberaria 


*— impluviata 





Coremia propugnata . . . . .68 

— quadrifasciaria . 


Camptogramma bilineata 


— fluviata 


Phibalapteryx lapidata 


— lignata 


C id aria miata 


— picata 


— sagittata 


— russata 


— immanata 


— suffumata 


— reticulata 


— populata 


— fulvata 


Eubolia mensuraria 


— bipunctaria 


— lineolata 


Oarsia imbutata . 


Lithostege nivearia 

. 104 

Chesias spartiata . 

. 107 

— obliqnavia 


Odezia chserophyllata 


Sterrha sacraria . 

. 110 

List of Parasites bred from those species of the Geometrina 

which are included in this volume . . . 117 

Index . 

. 119 




Bmmelesia affinitata. 
Plate CXXVIIL fi<r. 1. 

For many years a number of friends tried to send 
me the long-desired larva of Emmelesia affinitata, 
which I have been unable to meet with here, yet their 
several consignments of seed-eating geometers invari- 
ably proved to be its more common congener E. 
decolor at a, until Mr. 0. G. Barrett turned his attention 
to this somewhat local species, and it is entirely owing 
to his very kind efforts, sustained for two or three 
seasons, that my desire has been accomplished. 

Of this species Mr. Barrett first sent me four eggs 
in 1876, at the beginning of July, but on that occa- 
sion, for want of the proper food-plant, the young 
larvse were not reared much beyond their second 
moult, on seefrs of Lychnis vespertina, a substitute 
food ; but in 1878 Mr. Barrett found and sent me 
from Pembroke two young larvae on July 27th, feeding 
in seed-capsules of Lychnis diurna. One, unfortunately 
injured, died next day, but was replaced by another 
on the 2nd of August, and supplemented by two more 
on the 19th, together with needful supplies of the 
seed-capsules, followed by more. 



The first moth was bred on the 14th of July, the 
last on the 4th of August, 1879, both females, and at 
an earlier date many chalcids emerged. 

The egg in shape is a broad oval, its surface ribbed 
and pitted. When first laid the colour is pale straw- 
yellow ; on the fifth day it begins to look a little dirty, 
and it hatches on the sixth. 

The young larva is whitish, with black head and a 
blackish plate on the second segment ; after a moult 
it becomes of a faint drab tint on the body ; after the 
second moult it assumes a deeper tint of drab and has 
a darker dorsal line, with the belly whitish, the head, 
the plate in front and plate behind, brownish-black. 
As it advances in growth it becomes more or less 
tinged with pinkish on the upper surface, showing 
decided lines, and of a pearly whiteness below. 

The full-grown larva, with reference to the size of 
the perfect insect, is, like some others of this genus, 
very small, not more than about from three-eighths to 
half an inch in length, and from the form and re- 
stricted size of its dwelling within the seed-capsule, 
its natural hunch-backed looping posture tends appa- 
rently to dwarf its actual dimension ; its figure is 
dumpy for a geometer, of about equal substance as 
far as the tenth segment, from whence it tapers a little 
to the anal extremity ; the head is a little less than the 
second segment, though of a broadish character ; the 
segments of the body are well divided and very plump, 
yet each having two or three wrinkles across the 
back ; the spiracular region is rather tumid ; in colour 
the head is black or blackish-brown and glossy, the 
lobes on the crown well defined by the margin of pale 
skin from the blackish -brown shining plate on the 
second segment ; another plate, less dark, occurs on 
the anal flap, and there are two remarkable additional 
horny plates situated one on the outer side of each 
anal leg ; the rest of the body is without gloss, and 
of a light drab colour broadly tinged with pink down 
the back and sides, becoming a little paler on the 


belly, or a pinkish fawn-colour, or pinkish-brown, as 
individuals differ, and having a dorsal line and sub- 
dorsal lines of deeper pink, but interrupted at each 
segmental pale fold of skin ; a pinkish lateral line 
runs a little above the spiracles, which are rather large 
in proportion and blackish-brown ; the tubercular dots 
are inconspicuous, though their positions are indicated 
each by a minute bristle when seen through a lens. 

A variety occurs of a pearly pinkish-grey ground 
colour, and another variety with rosy-pink melting 
gradually into reddish-fawn colour on the hinder seg- 
ments, and having the anterior plate dark only at its 
hind margin, quite light brown in front, with a fine 
paler dorsal dividing line. 

The pupa is of a dumpy form, five-sixteenths of an 
inch long ; the thorax very plump, and rounded off to 
the moderately produced head ; the wing-covers long 
and tumid, having their neuration in slight relief; 
from them the abdomen rapidly tapers in the female 
to rather a sharp point furnished with two minute 
bristles ; in colour it isbrownish-ochreous with darker 
brown divisions of the flexible segments of the abdo- 
men, the surface glistening. It is generally enclosed 
in an earthen -covered silken cocoon attached to a 
small stone or other substance, though sometimes the 
cocoon is spun within the remains of a seed-capsule 
eaten out by the larva, where it becomes partly adhe- 
rent to quantities of frass. (William Buckler, 7th 
August, 1879; E.M.M., October, 1879, XYI, 102; 
and Note Book III, 101 and 248.) 


Plate CXXVIII, fig. 2. 

The larvae from which the following description was 
taken were sent to me at the end of September, 1877, 
by Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson, of Preston, who had found 
them feeding on the seeds of the common dead-nettle. 


Length nearly half an inch, and tolerably plump in 
proportion ; the head is highly polished, it has the 
lobes ronnded, is a trifle narrower than the second, 
but wider than the third segment ; immediately behind 
it, on the second segment, is an equally polished half- 
circular plate, and there is also a similarly polished 
plate on the anal segment. The body is cylindrical, 
of tolerably uniform width, tapering a little pos- 
teriorly ; the segments are plump, the divisions well 
defined ; there are a few scattered short hairs. The 
ground colour of the dorsal surface is a rather pale 
but warm purple ; the head and the frontal and anal 
plates are intensely black. A broad pale yellow stripe 
extends throughout the dorsal area, dividing the 
black frontal plate into two sections ; there is also a 
similarly coloured but much narrower line along the 
subdorsal region, and another one between this and 
the spiracles. The spiracles and tubercles are minute, 
black ; the hairs grey. The ventral surface is uni- 
formly pale yellowish green, with a few minute black 
tubercles. (George T. Porritt, 3rd April, 1879; 
Entom., May, 1879, XII, 128.) 

Emmelesia albulata. 
Plate CXXVIII, fig. 3. 

The larva of this species has been described more 
than once before, and I should not have thought of 
saying anything about it myself but that when, for 
the purpose of procuring specimens for figuring, I set 
to work this season to rear it from the egg, 1 found 
that not one of my specimens corresponded with 
previous descriptions. I am driven to the conclusion, 
therefore, that this is a variable species, and proceed 
to record the variety I have met with. 

On the 2nd of June of this year (1865) I took 
some moths, and one female laid several eggs, and 


next day I looked for and found some more laid at 
large on plants of yellow-rattle in the same locality. 

These eggs are oval and yellow, paler at first, and 
becoming richer in tint afterwards, deposited on the 
flower bracts. 

On the 9th of June the little yellowish larvae with 
dark heads appeared, and a few days afterwards I 
captured several others feeding in the green and tender 
seed-pods of their food-plant. It is easy to detect a 
larva, as the seed-vessel containing it looks discoloured; 
but I could not perceive that they spun together any 
covering for themselves, all I noticed being completely 
hidden within the seed-pods. After a change or two 
the larvae became dirty whitish in tint, the head, plate 
on second segment, and tip of tail being dark. 

About the 30th of June they were full-fed, and were 
then of a uniform pale primrose-yellow — no lines — but 
the ordinary dots very small, brownish, with a few 
bristles, the head brown, the horny plates on the 
2nd aud 13th segments scarcely tinged with brown ; 
spiracles brown. 

Soon after this date they changed to pupae, but be- 
fore doing so, as far as I could see, they all left their 
food and entered the earth ; and although I searched 
diligently, I failed to find any pupae in the ripened 
plants where I had previously taken the moths, eggs, 
and larvae. (John Hellins, 5th October, 1865; B.M.M., 
April, 1866, II, 261.) 

Emmelesia decolorata. 

Plate CXXVIII, fig. 4. 

The insect was abundant in a plantation at Grimes- 
car, about a mile out of Huddersfield, in the middle 
of June last (1867) ; and I derived considerable satis- 
faction from watching them deposit their eggs ; they 
flew from one flower-head to another^ staying but a 


short time on each, and apparently depositing not 
more than two or three eggs every time they settled. 

The egg is bright yellow, and hatches in abont 
eight days. 

When very young the larva is yellow, with a shining 
black head. (George T. Porritt, 24th July, 18G7; 
Entom., August, 1867, III, 316.) 

In last month's number of the Entomologist (cited 
above) Mr. Porritt has given a graphic and most 
interesting account of the proceedings of the female 
imago of this species of Emmelesia. 

As soon as the young larva emerges from the egg 
it perforates the capsule of the food-plant, Lychnis 
dioica, and feeds on the seeds contained in the interior, 
of which it henceforth takes possession, and uses 
it both as a granary and dormitory, never leaving it 
unless for a similar tenement ; within this dwelling it 
rests in a bent posture, thus accommodating its body 
to the requirements of the chamber; when extracted 
it crawls rather rapidly until it finds a vacated capsule 
or some similar recess, where it can remain concealed 
from observation ; it is full-fed towards the end of 

The head is narrower than the second segment, 
porrected in crawling, very glabrous, and not notched 
on the crown. The body is rather obese, almost 
uniformly cylindrical, and entirely without humps, 
but it has a few minute warts, each of which emits a 
fine but short hair from the summit; the second 
segment has a double dorsal glabrous plate. 

The colour of the head and dorsal plate is wainscot- 
brown ; the body is putty-coloured, with two rather 
distant, rather narrow purple-brown stripes; below 
each of these, yet above the spiracles, is a linear 
series of markings of the same hue ; and below the 
spiracles is a narrow stripe, also of the same purple- 
brown colour; the ventral area is without markings, 
as are the claspers; the legs are almost colourless 
and shining. 


I am indebted to Mr. Moncreaff and Mr. Porritt 
for supplies of this larva. (Edward Newman; 
Entom., September, 1867, III, 325.) 

Emmelesia tjsniata. 

On the 14th August, 1877, I received fifteen eggs 
from Mr. J. B. Uodgkinson, together with the battered 
remains of the parent moth. The eggs were laid in 
a glass-topped box, one or two adhering to the box, 
the others loose. 

The egg is elliptical, with a depression on either 
side, the surface very finely pitted. At first they 
arrived of a dirty whitish colour; by the 20th they 
were yellowish, and on the 21st were of a light salmon- 
colour, becoming of an orange tint by the 24th and 
turning brown on the 25th, and blackish-brown on 
the 26th and 27th. One hatched on the 26th, one at 
12 p.m. on the 28th, another in the morning of the 
29th, and another in the afternoon. All the rest died 
in their shells. 

The larva when first hatched is dingy blackish- 
green, with the posterior segments rather lighter, and 
a paler spot halfway down the back; on the third 
day it is a paler but still dingy green. 

Gircdea lutetiana and Hypericum per for a turn, an ash 
leaf and a nut leaf were tried as food. These five 
larvae sustained themselves on, I believe, the Hypericum 
flowers and seed-pods up to the 6th of September, 
when they were laid up for moulting, but from cir- 
cumstances I being unable to attend to them, they 
became damp in the bottle, and on the 8th I found, 
them dead. 

They had grown to be fully an eighth of an inch 
long. The head was darkish brown, and on the second 
segment a plate of similar brown with paler lines 
through it, though small, could be discerned. The 
body was of a warm rather pinkish light brown, with 


the three hinder segments paler, and some bristly 
hairs on the body. 

Had they been placed at first on a growing plant, 
probably they wonld have thriven. (William Buckler, 
8th September, 1877 ; Note Book III, 208.) 

Of this hitherto unknown larva I have at last suc- 
ceeding in rearing some from eggs. It has baffled 
me for years to find any special plant to feed it upon. 
The most likely plant was the enchanter's nightshade, 
Of this I have beaten acres to no purpose ; in fact, it 
seemed a hopeless task even to discover whether the 
larva was green or brown, or what it was like. Now, 
however, I am able to give its history up to date. 
During the month of July I spent nine days in the 
Lake district, and paid special attention to getting 
this species, as usual. The species only comes oufc of 
the dark woods when worn. I secured about a dozen 
females, all of which I kept to lay eggs. 

About twenty eggs hatched in the second week of 
August. I put in the glass, along with them, Hype- 
ricum, enchanter's nightshade (Circaea lutetiana), 
dead-nettle (Lamium), groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), 
knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare), and many other 
plants ; and last, not least, a leaf or two of the garden 
nasturtium. Several of them went to work by 
making a round hole through a leaf of the last 
plant, — one appearing to take better to it than the 
others ; the rest seemed inclined to hybernate, while 
this one was nearly full-fed. 

It is quite seven-eighths of an inch long, and the 
following is a rough description : 

Ground colour of the back and sides a rich dark 
salmon, tinted brown at each segment; on the back 
there is a pale pink lozenge-shaped spot, darker at the 
edges, and in the centre of the spot is a clear black 
wedge-shaped mark ; the colour on the back at the 
anal extremity becomes much paler for three-eighths of 
an inch, and there are two rows of spots of a 
brownish-black down to the anal point; the sides and 


abdomen are of a pale pinkish-yellow, with no other 
markings than two spots at each segment underneath 
of this shape ; legs same colour as abdomen ; the head 
slightly darker, with short scattered hairs. 

The habit of the larva is much after that of Emme- 
lesia unifasciata ; when touched it frisks about, as if 
it wanted to be played with. (J. B. Hodgkinson, 
12th September, 1878 ; Entom., October, 1878, XI, 

The moth appears from the middle of June to the 
end of July. 

The larva hatches about six weeks after the egg is 
deposited, goes into hybernation when about a quarter 
of an inch long, and commences to feed again in 
April on the fruit of any of the mosses, but perhaps 
more frequently on a species of Bryum which grows in 
wet places. 

The following is a brief description of the larva : 

Length five-eighths of an inch. The upper portion 
of the body is fairly hairy or spiny, light brown in 
colour, with a dorsal row of deeper brown diamond- 
shaped marks and a series of six black dots ; lateral 
stripe pale yellow ; head and under side of the body 
pale ashy. 

The diamond marks remind one of a " pug " larva, 
and the black dots are very distinct and striking. 
The entire series of metamorphoses, from the laying 
of the egg to the emergence of the perfect insect, 
occupy a period of about ten months. (J. B. Hodg- 
kinson; Entom., May, 1895, XXVIII, 141.) 

Emmelesia unifasciata. 
Plate CXXVIII, fig. 5. 

I am indebted to Mr. J. Bryant for the specimens 
which have enabled Mr. Buckler and myself to work 


out the early stages of this species, which had long 
eluded our investigations. 

I have taken the imago at gas lamps here in Exeter, 
and have several times had eggs sent to me ; and 
amongst other plants I have supplied the young larvse 
with what now proves its proper food, namely, Bartsia 
odontites ; but, owing to the rapidity witb which this 
plant, when plucked and put in water, decays and 
becomes mildewed, I had always failed to rear them. 
In 1862 Mr. Buckler received from Dr. Holland, and 
figured, a larva now proved to belong to this species ; 
but, as it soon died, the figure remained unnamed, and 
nothing could be said about it. 

In the second week of last September Mr. Bryant 
sent Mr. Buckler eggs deposited by captured speci- 
mens of E. unifasciata, and on being instructed by 
him what to look for, found that Bartsia odontites 
was growing plentifully in the locality in which the 
moths were taken ; when, therefore, the eggs came on 
to me, I determined not to confuse the larvae with a 
number of food-plants to pick and choose from, but 
put them at once on a potted plant of Bartsia. This 
was about the 14th of September, and unfortunately 
I was not able to devote much attention to them till 
the beginning of the present month, when (4th of 
October), to my dismay, I found the plant dead and 
withering. However, a careful search enabled me to 
detect a solitary survivor crawling about on the damp 
rotten seed-pods, so I felt sure now there was no 
longer a doubt about the food-plant ; and finding that 
the field which had supplied me with it here had 
just been ploughed up, I got a supply at once from 
Mr. Buckler. The seed-pods on the sprigs he sent me 
were beginning to ripen, so partially opening one of 
them I placed my little larva on it, and soon saw it 
hide itself within. I now left it undisturbed for a 
week, taking it for granted that it was going from 
pod to pod, and feeding up well ; at last I thought I 
would look for it, and after opening several pods as 


carefully as possible, found it stowed away in one of 
them ; but, instead of being increased in bulk, look- 
ing shrivelled, and much thinner than when last seen. 
This was disappointing; but, taking comfort at the 
thought that more tender diet might suit it better, I 
asked Mr. Buckler to get some of the greenest pods he 
could find, and soon discovered that they were just 
what was wanted. On the 16th of October I found 
my larva in the act of moulting within a seed-pod, 
and after this, its last moult, a great change took 
place in its appearance and manner of life. 

About this time, too, Mr. Bryant, having at Mr. 
Buckler's instigation searched carefully the Bartsla 
plants in his locality, found several larvae feeding at 
large ; and, as those which he kindly sent to Mr. 
Buckler exactly corresponded with the one I had 
reared, there was no difficulty in identifying their 
species ; and from these, together with my own soli- 
tary specimen, the following account and descriptions 
have been drawn up. 

The egg is laid in August, and the larva soon 

Perhaps it feeds first inside the flowers of the 
Bartsla, but, at all events, we know that, whilst 
young, it lives within the unripe seed-pods, which it 
enters by a hole in the side, remaining hidden until 
all the seeds are consumed, the frass at the entrance 
hole alone showing its whereabouts. After its last 
moult it no longer hides itself, and seems to have no 
difficulty with the ripening capsules and seeds, still 
making a hole as before in the side, and inserting its 
head and front segments as far as it finds it 
necessary to get at the seeds, all the while holding 
on with its prolegs to the stem outside. It seems 
to become full-fed towards the end of October, 
and goes just under the surface of the ground for 

The simultaneous change of habit and ornamenta- 
tion at the last moult is very interesting, but I will 


leave wiser beads than mine to determine which is the 
cause of the other. 

The eggs were too far gone for description when I 
had them. 

The newly hatched larva is exceedingly small, yellow 
in colour, with a dark head. Afterwards it becomes 
paler, of a yellowish-white, and is to look at like a 
small maggot. 

On the 14th of October, just before its last moult, 
I made this note of its appearance : 

Full a quarter of an inch long, and plump, but able 
to stow itself away in a Bartsia seed-pod ; tapering 
towards the head, and not so much towards the tail : 
the skin smooth and glossy; the usual dots very 
minute but distinct, being dark; the ground colour 
yellowish-white ; the head dark brown ; plate on the 
second segment pale brown ; a sort of pale brownish 
plate also on the thirteenth segment, which looks 
darker from the tubercular dots on it being black. 
On a very close inspection one can trace the course of 
the lines — soon to be developed distinctly, but they 
cannot yet be described as plainly noticeable. 

Immediately after the last moult its appearance is 
much prettier than at any other time, the ground 
colour being of a pale delicate buff, and the lines very 
clear and almost black ; but this contrast is soon lost, 
the ground becoming darker and dingier, and the lines 
paler and more diffused. 

When the larva has become full-fed the length is 
about half an inch, the figure stout, somewhat flattened ; 
the fourth, third, and second segments tapering rather 
rapidly ; the head still narrower than the second, and 
round in shape ; half the second segment scale-like 
and shining; the hinder segments also taper to the 
tail ; the skin is rough and wrinkled ; the tubercles 
are dull white, furnished with short dark brown hairs ; 
the ground colour varies in different individuals, 
being greyish-yellow, greenish-grey, greyish-brown, or 
brown ; the dorsal line is blackish, beginning very fine 


on the front of each segment, thickening towards its 
end, and slightly interrupted at the fold; the sub- 
dorsal line more or less visibly continuous according 
to the depth of the ground colour, and may be de- 
scribed as a line of stout blackish dashes placed at the 
folds, sometimes connected by brownish streaks which 
fade away into the ground colour about the middle of 
each segment; on segments 10 to 13, the dorsal 
and subdorsal lines unite to form a darker smoky 
streak, which tapers away to a point at the anal ex- 
tremity ; below the subdorsal comes a brown wavy 
line ; the spiracular region is brownish above and more 
yellowish-white below, these colours not being definitely 
separated by a line; the black spiracles are placed in 
open spaces of the paler colour ; at the tenth segment 
the lateral lines fade away into the pale colour, thus 
forming a strong contrast to the united dark lines on 
the back ; below the spiracles comes a clearly defined 
stripe of dark brown, followed by a broader one not 
so dark ; the belly varied with yellowish and pinkish- 
white, with two indistinctly darker lines along it ; the 
head and collar yellowish, the dark lines passing 
through them as freckled stripes. (John Hellins, 
25th October, 1869 ; E.M.M., January, 1870, VI, 187.) 

Emmelesia blandiata. 

Plate CXXVIII, fig. 6. 

The habits of the genus Emmelesia seem to make it 
such a difficult matter to get hold of the larvae of some 
of the species that I feel more than ordinary pleasure 
in being able to say that I have removed E. blandiata 
from my list of desiderata ; of course it was not one 
of the " unknown," for the food-plant, and a descrip- 
tion after Freyer, had been given in Stain ton's 
Manual, yet, for all that, I could see no chance of 
obtaining the larva for years ; and now it has not 


been by means of British examples that I have worked 
out its history, although the help came from an old 

On the 21st of August, 1880, a sultry day with hot 
sun and occasional showers, the Rev. John Hellins 
was strolling in advance of his vehicle through a part 
of the Brunig Pass, between the Alpnach and Brienz 
in Switzerland, and was watching the swarms of butter- 
flies on the wing, when he noticed a small grey moth 
busy over a plant of euphrasy (Euphrasia officinalis), 
which was growing on a bank a little above his head ; 
some misty recollection of the above-mentioned notice 
in the Manual made him think of E. blandiata, and 
he tried to catch the moth in order to see if it was 
that species ; but failing in this he came back to the 
plant about which it had been flying, and pulling 
several shoots of it found that he had secured about a 
dozen of the eggs that had just been deposited under- 
neath the leaves amongst the open flowers, and these, 
unfortunately supplemented by some fresh shoots 
gathered early next morning, and so damp with dew, 
he posted in a tin box to me on the 22nd, and I re- 
ceived it in the afternoon of the 23rd. 

On opening the box I found most of the euphrasy 
already decayed, for it is one of the plants that fade 
rapidly from damp, and though I could see several 
empty egg-shells, there were only four or five tiny 
larvae still living, but there was also one bigger and 
finer than the rest, just emerging from a round hole in 
a seed-vessel, where it had evidently fed on the un- 
ripe contents; a few eggs had remained unhatched, 
and from these one larva appeared next day, and two 
more the day following, when I also found another 
larva of an earlier batch that had already moulted 
once if not twice. 

The young larvae soon ate their way into the seed 
capsules, and therein must have moulted, for though 
their small entrance hole was detected in the upper 
part of some capsules, they themselves could be seen but 


seldom for some time until they had acquired a certain 
amount of growth, and until the necessity for more 
food compelled them occasionally to come outside and 
attack fresh capsules, when they could be better 
observed ; especially was this the case after their last 
moult, when (like the larva of E. unifasciata, Ent. 
Mo. Mag., Jan. 1870, VI, 187), they assumed a hand- 
some dress admirably designed in harmony of aspect 
with the food-plant for their protection, whilst living 
for the remainder of their larval existence more or less 
exposed ; for often they remained with their heads 
buried in the seed capsules, and the greater portion of 
their bodies resting outside, and motionless for hours 
during the daylight; but the succession of brilliant 
little flowers given forth by the plants seemed quite to 
divert the eye from the larvae, and, moreover, their 
assimilation to the stems and leaves was so perfect, 
that even when one knew they were present on a 
shoot, it was with difficulty they could be detected. 

The two most advanced in growth moulted the last 
time in the evening of the 1st of September, the 
others at intervals later, and the first entered the 
earth on the 10th, more followed soon, and the last 
on the 18th. 

The only moth bred as yet, a male, appeared on the 
14th of August, 1881, and enabled me to make sure 
of the species, though probably more will emerge in a 
future season in conformity with the habit of some of 
its congeners. 

Again, during this last August Dr. T. A. Chapman 
most kindly sent me from Switzerland, amongst other 
things, a good supply of euphrasy shoots (gathered 
near Engelberg, some twelve or fifteen miles as the 
crow flies from the spot where Mr. Hellins had seen 
his moth the year before) on which he had detected 
eggs, and from these Mr. Hellins has succeeded in 
rearing to full growth about a dozen larvas evidently 
of the same species, and has thus enabled me to sup- 
plement my description drawn from the examples I 


had reared myself ; these were about a week later in 
their changes than the larvge of 1880. 

The egg of Emmelesia blandiata is oblong and 
somewhat flattened, one end more rounded than the 
other ; rather more than one-sixtieth (- 6 - -) of an inch 
long and about one-hundredth (y^o) °f an inch wide ; 
the shell reticulated rather coarsely and shallowly, not 
very shining, and of a deep yellow colour ; when empty 
the shell looks white. 

The newly hatched larva is rich yellow, with 
blackish-brown head and narrow plate across the 
middle of the second segment ; ifcs skin is glossy, the 
bristles from the usual spots are somewhat clubbed ; 
in four days' time it is decidedly grown, still yellow,* 
and with the addition of a dark purplish-brown dorsal 
line, and a subdorsal line rather paler than the yellow 
ground and faintly edged with darker. After a moult 
and increase of size the colouring is more opaque and 
of a light buff-yellow ; afterwards a very faint brownish 
colour tinges the back, and a slight pearly greyish- 
whiteness the belly ; as they grow they become pale 
dull green, with a dull purplish dorsal line ; but they 
continue to be very plain little larvse until the last 
moult, which is passed when the length of three- 
eighths of an inch is attained ; at full growth the 
length is half an inch or a trifle more, and the larva 
is not quite so thick in proportion as its congener 
JE. unifasciata, though the segments are plump and 
well defined, each having two transverse wrinkles 
near the end ; the form tapers gradually forward from 
the seventh to the head, which is the smallest, and 
backward a little from the tenth to the end of the 
thirteenth. The general ground colour is green, 
varying in richness in different individuals, and is 
yellower and brighter for the first few days ; the head 

* The rich yellow colouring of the egg and young larva strikes me 
as assimilating wonderfully with certain spots, apparently some fungus, 
with which the euphrasy is much infested ; there is also a little yellow 
grub, apparently dipterous, that shows the same colouring, but we have 
not reared any to full growth. 


is very glossy, greenish-yellow faintly tinged with 
pinkish, and having two rows of pink freckles down 
the front of each lobe ; the ocelli large and black ; the 
green of the body is well contrasted with the design 
on the back which occupies the space there between 
the trapezoidal warts, and is attenuated a little on the 
posterior and thoracic segments, beginning on the 
second as merely twin lines, but on all the others 
consisting of three equally stoutish lines of very dark 
crimson ; of these the dorsal line in the centre is 
straight, but each outer one in its course along each 
segment bends inward a little towards the middle in 
symmetrical progression, enclosing a ground of deep 
rose-pink within them at either end, but which is lost 
in the middle of the segment by the complete fusion 
there of the three dark crimson lines together in a mass, 
just where the middle of the bends bring them near 
each other ; after an interval of green comes the sub- 
dorsal line of very deep pink, and at a less interval a 
thicker and rather sinuous lateral line, and at a wider 
interval again below a subspiracular line of the same 
deep pink colour ; the tubercular warts are whitish 
with minute black central dot bearing a fine short 
bristle ; the anterior pairs of the trapezoidals are quite 
close to the crimson outer curves of the dorsal design ; 
one wart occurs upon the anterior thickest part of the 
lateral sinuous line, another behind each spiracle, and 
others again beneath ; the roundish spiracles are 
blackish with pale centres ; the yellow-green of the 
back is more yellow close to the crimson design, and 
also on the tumid spiracular region, which on the 
posterior segment and edge of anal flap is primrose- 
yellow ; against this the outer crimson surface of the 
anal legs contrasts strongly ; beneath on the green 
belly are three paler lines, the central one the more 
noticeable ; as the larva matures the crimson markings 
of the back become purplish, and the general ground 
a deeper green, though the spiracular ridge remains 
yellowish to the last. 



The foregoing describes what I believe to be the 
typical or complete design of the larva, for it was the 
one shown by all the larvse in 1880, and by most in 
1881, but amongst the latter there occurred three or 
four of a variety showing an incomplete form of the 
dorsal design, which, may be regarded as substan- 
tiating in a manner the description in the Manual 
after Freyer. 

In this variety the dorsal line as usual is complete 
throughout, but at the beginning of every segment the 
two outer or curving lines are absent as far as the first 
pair of warts, and the pink ground so faintly shown 
as scarcely to be noted there, but the remaining parts 
of the design are quite perfect, and so stand out like 
a dark arrow-mark, or in other words a very elongated 
triangle at the end of each segment, through which 
passes the continuous dorsal line. 

There were also two or three larvaG with the full 
pattern, but of much duller colouring, being pale 
brownish with a pink tinge, and the lines of the 
pattern also duller. 

The larva goes into a light soil for its final change, 
and forms a compact little cocoon not quite three- 
eighths of an inch long and about half as wide. The 
pupa measures five-sixteenths of an inch in length ; 
it is without any peculiarity of form, and of a bright 
yellowish-green colour for some time, having a broadish 
stripe of crimson down the middle of the back of the 
abdomen, suggestive of the larval design, and with 
rather a glossy surface. (William Buckler, 7th Decem- 
ber, 1881; E.M.M., January, 1882, XVIII, 180; and 
Note Book IV, 39.) 


Plate OXXIX, fig. 2. 

Towards the end of May, 1868, Mrs. Hutchinson, of 
Grantsfieldj kindly sent me seven eggs of Eupithecia 


consig?iata, laid by a female taken in Herefordshire by 
her daughter. They all hatched in the course of a 
few days ; and I have reared six larvse, all of which 
have now spun up. 

I have much pleasure in sending a description of 
this hitherto almost unknown larva. 

Larva long, slender, tapering slightly towards the 
head. Ground colour grass-green, slightly tinged with 
yellow. Segmental divisions yellowish. Central dorsal 
line very slender, dark purplish-red, enlarged at the 
base of each segment into a spear-head-shaped blotch. 
Dorsal blotches bordered with yellow, and becoming 
confluent on the capital and caudal segments. Head 
somewhat broad, green, very slightly marked with 
purplish-red. Spiracular line puffed, rather paler green 
than the rest of the body ; blotched into purplish-red 
on a few of the central segments, and more or less 
bordered with straw-colour. Central ventral line 
whitish. Body somewhat wrinkled, studded with a 
very few short, slender, whitish hairs. 

Fed on apple. Full-fed 14th to 19th June. 

Some few years since I bred two of these larvse from 
oalc in Suffolk, and another from hazel in Hampshire. 
I suspected at the time that they were the larvse of 
Eupithecia consignata ; but, as they died in the pupa 
state, I was unable to verify my suspicions. 

This larva closely resembles that of E. exiguata. 
(H. Harpur-Crewe, 22nd June, 1868; Entom., July, 
1868, IV, 96; B.M.M., August, 1868, V, 72.) 

Through the generous kindness of Mrs. Hutchinson 
I have also reared a few larvse of this species. My 
object in writing these few lines is to draw attention, 
not to the larva, but to the pupa. 

This is quite unlike that of any Eupithecia with 
which I am acquainted. It is more like that of a Tortrix 
than of a geometer, very long and slender, and 
twisting the abdominal portion in a very active manner* 
I think there is little doubt but that the pupa might 
be found in orchards, under moss, or behind loose 


bark. The admirers of the genus Eupithecia are greatly 
indebted to the discoverer of the larva of this very- 
pretty species. (Joseph Greene, July, 1868; E.M.M., 
August, 1868, V, 73.) 


Plate CXXIX, fig. 4. 

This interesting and hitherto unknown and unde- 
scribed larva has turned up in some numbers during 
the present summer (1864), and now that its habits 
and food-plant are known will probably prove to be 
one of our commonest and most generally dispersed 
insects. The merit of its discovery is due to my ex- 
cellent and indefatigable friend the Rev. John Hell ins, 
of Exeter. Last year (1863) both he and I had 
several batches of fertile eggs of E. pulchellata, which 
were kindly sent us by Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson, of 
Preston ; the young larvae hatched out well, but though 
we supplied them with every likely flower we could 
think of, they refused everything, and perished 
miserably of starvation. 

This summer (1864) Mr. Hellins again received fertile 
eggs from Mr. Hodgkinson, and, at Mr. Doubleday's 
suggestion, supplied the newly hatched larva3 with 
flowers of the common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) ; 
finding that they fed freely, grew, and prospered, he 
at once communicated the interesting fact to his ento- 
mological friends, and the result is that the larva has 
been discovered in some numbers in several different 
localities ; I took about forty in a w T ood about a mile 
from my house in less than an hour ; some relatives of 
mine have found it in profusion at Warstow, near 
Leek, Staffordshire ; Mr. Batty has met with it near 
Sheffield; and Mr. Baker has taken it freely in tbe 
neighbourhood of Derby. 

It feeds on the stamens and unripe seed-capsules of 
the common foxglove, spinning the lip of the flower 


together, and is, from this circumstance, not difficult 
to detect. 

It is rather a variable larva ; I append descriptions 
of those varieties which have lately come under my 

Yar. 1. Ground colour dull yellowish-green ; central 
dorsal line broad, continuous, dull dingy purple; 
subdorsal lines ditto, narrow, interrupted on the anal 
segments ; spiracular line narrow, broken, dingy 
purple; head brownish, marked with lines of a dingy 
shade ; on the collar is a blackish spot ; belly whitish- 
green, with a whitish central line ; the whole body 
thickly strewed with whitish hairs, and occasionally 
suffused with dull dingy purple. 

Var. 2. Ground colour dull yellowish and whitish - 
green ; central dorsal line dusky green ; subdorsal 
lines ditto; segmental divisions yellowish; spiracular 
line dull green, very narrow and faint ; belly whitish- 
green, without markings. 

Yar. 3. Ground colour pale primrose, slightly suf- 
fused with green ; central dorsal line dull faint green, 
almost invisible on the posterior segments ; subdorsal 
lines ditto, much broken, having more the appearance 
of detached spots ; spiracular line very faint, pale 
yellow ; belly whitish. 

Yar. 4. Ground colour bright yellowish-green ; cen- 
tral dorsal line broad, pale olive ; subdorsal lines ditto, 
narrow ; spaces between central dorsal and subdorsal 
lines bright yellow ; spiracular line faint, broken, dusky 
green ; belly sea-green. 

Pupa enclosed in a slight earthen cocoon ; thorax 
and wing-cases yellowish-green ; abdomen reddish- 
yellow ; abdominal divisions and tip deep red. (H. 
Harpur-Crewe, August, 1864; E.M.M., September, 
1864, I, 95.) 



Plate CXXX, fig. 1. 

A geometer larva nearly three-quarters of an inch 
long, slender and nearly uniform in substance ; the 
head rather smaller than the second segment, which 
is a trifle less than the third ; the head rather bent 
downwards as in Lobophora viretata, and the front legs 
drawn together when at rest, straight and stick-like. 
On the anal tip below the flap are two anal very blunt 
points or projections ; the segments are deeply wrin- 
kled, marking each into three portions, the middle one 
being the largest, and other usual two or three 
wrinkles in the third portion. In colour the head is 
ochreous, the second segment greenish-ochreous, the 
rest of the body yellow-green with deep bright yellow 
folds of skin at the segmental divisions ; a dorsal and 
subdorsal lines of darker green ; the spiracles reddish 

The larva came from Mr. C. G. Barrett, of Pem- 
broke, 19th August, 1878. (William Buckler, August, 
1878 ; Note Book III, 252.) 


Plate CXXX, fig. 2. 

On the 28th of September, 1883, came from the 
Rev. John Hellins as many as thirty larvae of this 
good species, all very young and many very little, but 
they all fed well, not at all on blossoms or seeds, but 
only on the leaves by eating away the upper green 
skin, so that the fresh gathered leaves of their food- 
plant, Artemisia vulgaris, appear very soon to be 
covered with white traces, where in little patches the 
green has been nibbled away. They ate some amount 


of food in this way, and became full-fed after they had 
moulted two or three times. 

On the 2nd of October Mr. Hellins tried mugwort 
beating again to find me a small pug larva [Eupithecia 
innotata] like I have described in this volume [i. e., 
Note Book IV] at page 220, but, though not suc- 
cessful in that, he took more E. succenturiata, and 
kindly sent me a dozen of them, amongst them being 
some almost full-fed, and several full-grown. 

The mugwort which yielded the larvae of E. suc- 
centuriata grows on sandy soil. (William Buckler, 
November, 1883; Note Book IV, 192.) 


Plate CXXX, fig. 5. 

During the course of last summer (1865) I had the 
pleasure of examining a very beautiful and carefully 
executed collection of drawings of various species of 
geometers, their larvas and food-plants. These draw- 
ings were the work of a very painstaking Continental 
entomologist, M. Carl Plotz. 

This gentleman figured the larva of Eujpithecia 
plumbeolata Haw., feeding upon the flowers of the 
purple cow-wheat, Melannpyrum arvense L. This plant 
is not very common in Great Britain ; another species, 
however, M. pratense L., is much more frequent. 
Finding that this latter plant almost invariably grew 
in some plenty in those localities where Eujpithecia 
plumbeolata was most freely taken, it occurred to 
myself and several other entomological friends that 
the larva might very probably be found to feed upon 
its flowers. I am happy to say that our suspicions 
have proved correct. Towards the end of June I 
received a few eggs of E. plumbeolata from Mr. J. B. 
Hodgkinson of Preston, Mr. C. G. Barrett of Hasle- 
mere, and Mr. George Baker of Derby. The parent 
moths were all taken flying over or among Melampyrum 


pratense, and the eggs were mostly deposited upon 
sprigs of this plant. 

. They hatched in about a week, and from the batch 
sent me by Mr. Baker I was fortunate enough to rear 
seven larvsB to full growth. The Rev. John Hellins, 
of Exeter, kindly supplied me with fresh flowers of 
Melampyrum pratense (which does not grow here at 
Drayton-Beauchamp, near Tring), every three days. 
Mr. Wm. Buckler, of Emsworth, has, with his usual 
skill, taken some very accurate and life-like coloured 
drawings; and both he, Mr. Hellins, and Mr. Baker 
have been fortunate enough to take the larvse them- 
selves on the flowers of the Melampyrum in their 
respective neighbourhoods. I cannot sufficiently 
thank these gentlemen, and Messrs. Barrett and 
Hodgkinson, for the kindness they have shown and 
the trouble they have taken in helping me to work out 
the economy of this interesting little insect. 
I subjoin a description of the larva and pupa. 
Larva somewhat short and stumpy, in shape re- 
sembling the larva of Eupithecia isogrammata Tr. 
Ground colour pale dull yellowish-green. Central 
dorsal line broad, uninterrupted, dull purplish-red, 
enlarged at the centre of each segment into a some- 
what pear-shaped blotch. Subdorsal lines narrow, 
sinuous, dull purplish-red. Spiracular line yellowish, 
very faint. Spiracles blackish. Head yellowish, 
suffused with purplish-red. Central dorsal and sub- 
dorsal lines sometimes merged, leaving the back and 
sides suffused with purplish-red. Dorsal and lateral 
segments thinly sprinkled with slender yellowish 
hairs. Belly naked, pale, dull greenishr-yellow. Cen- 
tral ventral line wanting. Subventral lines narrow, 

Feeds on the flowers of Melampyrum pratense L. ; 
when quite small on the stamens alone, but afterwards 
on the whole corolla-tube. 

Full-fed from the middle of July to the middle of 
August. Reared from eggs sent me by Mr. George 


Baker, of Derby, who took the parent moths on 
Breadsall Moor, near Derby. 

Pupa either enclosed in a slight cocoon on the 
surface of the ground, or in a dry corolla-tube of the 
Melampyrum. Ground colour golden yellow, abdo- 
minal divisions and tip red. (H. Harpur-Crewe, 
4th August, 1865; E.M.M,, September, 1865, 11,90.) 


Plate CXXXI, fig. 2. 

Larva long, very slender, and tapering extremely 
on the capital segments. Ground colour pale, dull 
yellowish-green. Central dorsal line pale olive, con- 
necting a series of very distinct, well-defined, urn- 
shaped blotches of the same colour, which become 
confluent on the capital and anal segments. Sub- 
dorsal and spiracular lines pale olive, sinuous, distinct, 
and rather broad. Belly without markings. Skin 
rough and rugose, freely studded with short whitish 

In form and general appearance this larva comes 
next to that of E. pulcliellata. It feeds on petals and 
anthers of Stellaria holostea. Full-fed 20th of June. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. J. B. 
Hodgkinson of Preston, and the Rev. John Hellins 
of Exeter, for the opportunity of describing this 
interesting and almost unknown larva. The former 
gentleman took a female moth on the 25th of May. 
She deposited three eggs on a daisy flower, which, 
together with the parent insect, he forwarded to 
Mr, Hellins. The eggs hatched on the 2nd of 

Mr. Hellins kindly sent me a larva on the eve of its 
last moult. I had no Stellaria holostea within easy 
reach, but found it fed freely on petals and stamens of 
Gerastium tomentosum. 

Mr. Buckler has secured several life-like portraits 


of this interesting little stranger. (H. Harpur- 
Crewe, 21st June, 1872; E.M.M., August, 1872, IX, 
65; and Entom., August, 1872, VI, 166.) 


Plate CXXXI, fig. 6. 

On the 21st of September, 1879, came a moth bred 
about the middle of May, 1879, accompanied by two 
larvae feeding in the seed-heads of Jasione montana, 
from Mr. Robert Ficklin, of Keynsham, near Bristol. 
The larvse were said to be precisely the same as those 
from which the moth had been bred, with others like 
it to the number of about thirty. The larvae were all 
taken on the same food growing in Devonshire in 
1878. Mr. Ficklin stated that he sent one of the 
moths to the Rev. H. Harpur-Crewe, who thought it 
was a variety of E. castigata ; but as Mr. Ficklin felt 
convinced it was not that species, he had gone after 
the larvae into Devonshire again this year (1879), but 
was too soon for them, and he only got about two 
dozen very small ones, which have grown up to the 
size of those now sent to me ; he sent two of the 
larvae to Mr. Crewe, who advised him to send a moth 
to me, and one or two larvae for me to figure. On 
the 26th of September Mr. Ficklin sent me six more 
of the larvae and some dry seed-heads on which they 
were feeding; and in the meantime I had detected 
two more larvae in the heads previously sent. Mr. 
Ficklin mentioned the seed-heads to be of some sort 
of scabious, and Mr. Harpur-Orewe spoke of them as 
Scabiosa succisa, and I readily believed they were until 
I gathered one or two to give to the larvae, and then I 
saw at once that the larvae were not on any kind of 
scabious heads ; but after some delay, and reference 
to the plates of ' English Botany,' it soon appeared 
that they were the seed-heads of Jasione Montana. 

Mr. Harpur-Crewe and myself were both struck by 


the great resemblance in the pattern or design on 
the back of these larvae to that of E. campanulata, 
which seemed to correspond in every particular but 
that of size, these being so much smaller. Mr. 
Harpur-Crewe thought the moth was a nigrescent 
variety of E. castigata, but I soon saw that though all 
the lines were present as in that species, yet the paler 
spot at the anal angle of the superior wings was not 
present, and that there appeared to be a difference in 
the cut of the wings, E. castigata having a more pro- 
duced tip and more convex hind-border than in this 
moth, which is of a cold grey colour, quite different 
from the brownish-grey of E. castigata. 

The larva is about or nearly half an inch long, of 
moderate stoutness, and very rugose, tapering a little 
anteriorly from the sixth or seventh segment, and pos- 
teriorly from the tenth. The head is dark brown, 
marked with darker ; the ground colour of the body 
varies in different examples from pale whity-brown to 
brown, lighter or darker, warmer or colder ; beyond 
the thoracic segments to the ninth inclusive there is 
on each segment somewhat of a barrel-shaped mark 
of brown, thickly and strongly marked on each side of 
the shape with dark brown, or this may be described 
as a bulbous flask shape, the sides of the bulb thickly 
defined with dark brown, and a darkish brown dorsal 
stripe running continuously through all to the anal 
tip ; on the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth segments the 
shapes are rudimentary ; a fine dark brown subdorsal 
line runs close by either side of the dorsal shapes, and 
bears a dark brown thick mark or blotch close to the 
widest dark part of the flask shape, sometimes uniting 
with it, but these do not occur after the ninth seg- 
ment ; on the side of each segment is an oblique dark 
[word evidently missing in the MS.] downwards from 
the front towards the spiracular region ; the belly is 
whitish cream-colour, with a central dark grey-brown 
ventral line ; the tubercular warts bear each a fine 
dark brown central dot on their paler tint, and a short 


stiff bristle. Each segment is subdivided by six deep 
transverse wrinkles, the first four wider apart than 
the other two ; the segmental divisions are very 
deeply cut, the end of each segment swelling' out in 
breadth beyond that of the beginning of the next ; 
the surface of the skin being thickly covered with 
granulous points ; the bulbs of the flask shapes or the 
barrels occupy but little more than the hinder half, if 
any, on each segment, so that the difference between 
the marks on this larva and those on the larva of 
E. campanulata is one of proportion. 

Subsequently Mr. Ficklin informed me that he found 
these larvae on the plants growing at an elevation of 
several hundred feet above the sea at Lynton, North 
Devon. (William Buckler, 26th September, 1879 ; 
Note Book IV, page 6.) 

Some three years ago I received from Mr. Ficklin, 
of Keynsham, near Bristol, specimens of a Eupithecia, 
Avhich he had bred from larvae taken the previous 
September in North Devon, feeding in the seed-heads 
of Jasione montana. At first sight I was disposed to 
consider them a variety of Eupithecia castigata, and in 
this view Mr. Buckler, who also saw the specimens, 
concurred. I forbore, however, to give any definite 
opinion till I had seen the larvae. 

The same autumn Mr. Ficklin again took the larva 
in North Devon, and very kindly sent specimens both 
to Mr. Buckler and myself. We at once saw that 
they bore no likeness whatever to the larva of E. cas- 
tigata, but, though smaller and stouter, most closely 
resembled that of E. campanulata. As, however, the 
perfect insect was totally distinct from the latter 
species, I felt convinced it must be a species new to 

Through the kindness of Mr. McLachlan the per- 
fect insect has recently been carefully examined by 
Herr C. Dietze, of Baden-Baden, who probably knows 
more about the Continental Eupithecix than anyone 
else. He is unable to identify it with any known 


species, and considers it new to science. With the 
consent, therefore, of Mr. Ficklin, to whom the whole 
merit of the discovery is due, I propose to name it 

Eupithecia jasioneata. 

[Description of perfect insect omitted.] 

The larva is short and stout; the ground colour 
pale ochreous-brown ; the central dorsal line dull 
olive-brown, interspersed with lozenge-shaped spots 
of a similar colour ; the latter become merged into 
the central line on the anal segments ; the head is 
blackish ; the spiracular Hues are indistinct, yellowish 
on each side, with slanting brown markings. The 
whole larva is wrinkled, rough, and sparsely studded 
with yellowish warts and hairs. 

It feeds in September on the seed-heads of Jasione 
montana. The perfect insect appears in May. (H. 
Harpur-Crewe, 6th August, 1881 ; E.M.M., Sep- 
tember, 1881, XVIII, 80; and Entom., September, 
1881, XIV, 198.) 

Eupithecia lariciata. 
Plate CXXXV, fig. 1. 

A notice of the occurrence of this insect, hitherto 
undetected in Britain, has already appeared in the 
pages of the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. A 
description, therefore, of the larva and pupa may not 
prove an unpleasant sequel. This I am able to supply 
through the kindness of Mr. Edward Hopley, who 
forwarded me a small batch of impregnated eggs, 
from which I reared nine or ten larvse. 

There appear to be two well-marked varieties of the 

Var. 1. Ground colour bright grass-green, some- 
what darker on the centre of the back ; central dorsal 
line dark green ; anal tip of central dorsal line red- 
dish ; subdorsal line wanting, or so faint as to be 
scarcely visible ; spiracular line whitish or pale straw- 


colour ; segmental divisions yellowish ; belly whitish, 
with a dark green central line. A long and rather 
slender larva, tapering towards the head. It resem- 
bles in general appearance the larva of Eupithecia 
fraxlnata Crewe. 

Yar. 2. Ground colour yellowish-red or reddish- 
buff ; central dorsal line brownish-olive, occasionally 
very faint ; anal tip of central dorsal line reddish ; 
spiracular line pale greenish-yellow; belly whitish, 
with a dusky central and two broad lateral lines. In 
general appearance it much resembles the larva of 
Eupithecia indigata Hubu. 

Feeds on larch and spruce fir. Full-fed at the end 
of Julv. 

Pupa enclosed in a slight earthen cocoon, rather 
long and slender ; thorax yellowish-olive ; wing-cases 
deep green ; abdomen yellowish-green, tinged with 
red; abdominal divisions and tip red. (H. Harpur- 
Crewe, 11th October, 1864; E.M.M., November, 
1864, I, 141.) 


Plate OXXXII, fig. 4. 

Received 22nd June, 1870, from Mr. Thomas 
Hutchinson, who beat it from either oak or beech, 
both trees interlacing their foliage. 

The larva when full-fed is barely three-quarters of 
an inch long, green, with the head dull purplish brown- 
red. A series of dull crimson or purplish red-brown 
dorsal marks at the segmental divisions, and a faint 
blush on the middle of each segment, as though these 
marks formed part of dorsal diamonds which had 
become obsolete or almost vanished except at the 
beginning and end of each segment ; and at these parts 
are bordered with paler yellowish-green than the full 
green ground colour. The dorsal line on the thoracic 
segments is pale yellowish-green, bordered by purplish 


brown. The subdorsal lines of the same colour dis- 
tinct on these segments only, and are again faintly 
seen on the posterior ones. The ventral surface is 
green, same as the back ; the abdominal and anal 
prolegs are tinged with purplish-brown. (William 
Buckler, June, 1870; Note Book I, 11.) 

A larva received from Mrs. Hutchinson on the 10th 
June, 1871. On oak, reared from the egg. 

The larva is elongate, of about equal size through- 
out. Ground colour bright rather yellowish-green. 
A series of dorsal purplish-red marks at the segmental 
divisions, something of a spear shape, but with the 
point cut abruptly off; the narrow part on the end 
of the segment in advance ; the broadest part behind 
is on the commencement of the segment following; a 
very faint trace exists in a pulsating dorsal line more 
or less connecting them. The dorsal blotches are 
bordered on each side with bright pale yellow, a fine 
streak or line of purplish-red through the middle of 
the yellow. The lobes of the head are dull purplish- 
red, and the thoracic segments are marked with this 
colour; the subdorsal purplish-red line is distinct on 
these and then disappears, but reappears in the midst 
of the yellow at the segmental divisions. Beneath the 
puffed spiracular region at the end of each segment is 
a spear-point shape of purplish-red, but fainter than 
the rest and pointing forwards. The belly is of the 
same green as that of the back and sides, and has a 
central pale yellowish faint line. The legs and ven- 
tral legs are purplish-red, and a streak of the same is 
above each, connecting them. 

The green of the larva is exactly the green of the 
oak leaves at this time. 

By the 15th of June it had lost its beauty, and was 
scarcely to be recognised ; and it retired to earth in 
the course of the day. (William Buckler, 15th June, 
1871 ; Note Book I, 106.) 

The larva is long, slender, and tapering slightly 
towards the head ; the ground colour is dull yellowish- 


green ; the skin is rather rough and wrinkled ; the 
central dorsal line is dull rusty red, very indistinct, 
except on the capital and caudal segments, enlarged 
on the centre of the median dorsal segments into a 
somewhat conspicuous elliptic blotch ; the subdorsal 
and spiracular lines are yellowish, the latter very 
faint; the head is rusty red; the belly is greenish, 
without markings. 

It feeds on oak, and is full-fed by the middle of 

It much resembles the larvae of E. exiguata and 
E. consignata, being exactly intermediate between 
the two. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mrs. Hutchinson 
of Grantsfield, and Mr. Buckler of Emsworth, for the 
opportunity of describing this almost unknown larva. 
It was bred from the egg by this most indefatigable 
of fair entomologists ; and Mr. Buckler has, w T ith his 
usual skill, secured a lifelike figure. (H. Harpur- 
Crewe, 19th June, 1871 ; Entom., July, 1871, V, 


Plate CXXXII, fig. 8. 

Larva long, smooth, tapering towards the head. 
Ground colour uniform dull green. Segmental divi- 
sions yellow. Central dorsal line dingy green or 
purple, very indistinct, except on the anal appendage, 
where it is dilated into a large dark purple spot. 
Spiracular line yellow. Belly whitish, wrinkled ; 
central ventral line dark green. A variety rarely 
occurs in which the central dorsal line is wanting, and 
its place is supplied by a series of dusky triangular 
blotches, becoming faint or evanescent on the anterior 
and posterior segments. On each side is a row of 
slanting yellowish stripes, tinged with pink. 

Pupa enclosed in a cocoon under moss, on the trunks 


of ash, long, slender, and tapering. Thorax and 
wing-cases dark olive. Abdomen still darker, almost 
black, tinged posteriorly with red. 

Feeds exclusively on ash. The Rev. Joseph Greene 
and myself have for some years been in the habit of 
taking both larva3 and pupae, and we never found 
them upon any other plant. The larvas will eat 
flowers of Laurustinus if reared from the egg in con- 
finement. It is full-fed at the end of August and 
the beginning of September. The perfect insect 
appears at the end of June and throughout July. 
(H. Harpur-Crewe, Ent. Annual, 1863, p. 120.) 


Plate CXXXII, fig. 6. 

This larva, in size and general appearance, closely 
resembles that of E. fraxinata. It is long, rather 
slender and tapering towards the head. There are 
two varieties. 

Var. 1 is green, with three purple dorsal lines, the 
centre one broad and distinct, expanding considerably 
on the anal segment, the two side ones very indistinct. 
Head and prolegs purple. Segmental divisions and 
spiracular line yellowish. Belly green. Back studded 
with a few minute white tubercles, interspersed here 
and there with a black one. 

Var. 2 is of a uniform purple, with two lines of a 
deeper shade on each side of the back. It feeds, as 
far as my experience goes, exclusively on the flowers 
and seeds of the lesser burnet saxifrage (Pimpinella 
saxifraga), and is full-fed throughout the month of 
September, and occasionally at the beginning of 
October. It prefers the hedge-sides and banks. It 
is fearfully infested with ichneumons, not above one 
in ten escaping. 

The pupa is enclosed in an earthen cocoon ; there 

vol. VIII. 3 


are two varieties, the one yellowish-brown, the other 

The perfect insect appears at the end of June and 
in July. 

The larva is by no means rare in the eastern 
counties ; I have also taken it in Derbyshire. (H. 
Harpur-Crewe ; Ent. Annual, 1861, p. 136.) 

Yar. 1 has the ground colour bright green, 
sometimes darker on the centre of the back ; the 
central dorsal line is darker green ; the subdorsal 
lines are paler ; the anal tip of the dorsal line is 
crimson ; the head is reddish ; the spiracular line is 
pale green ; the belly is green, paler than the ground 
colour ; the segmental divisions are pale yellowish- 

It resembles much the larvaa of E. fraxinata and 
E. lariciata. 

Var. 2 is pale russet-green ; the dorsal line is 
darker ; the subdorsal line is slightly darker ; the 
head is reddish-brown ; the anal tip of the dorsal line 
is crimsonish-red ; the spiracular line is yellowish, 
margined underneath with russet-brown ; the belly is 
yellowish- green ; the segmental divisions are paler. 

Var. 3 is neutral crimsonish-red ; it is paler towards 
the spiracular line ; the dorsal line is madder- brown ; 
the subdorsal lines are indistinct, reddish-brown ; the 
head is redclish-brown ; the tip of the anal segment is 
crimsonish-red ; the spiracular line is pale straw-colour, 
margined underneath with neutral red ; the belly is 
greyish ; the segmental divisions are pale straw-colour. 

Full-fed at the latter end of September. 

It feeds on the seeds of Pimpinella magna and 
P. saxifraga ; seems most partial to P. magna, upon 
which plant I have found the larvse rather freely. 
The colour of the larva seems to assimilate with the 
seeds ; the green ones upon green unripe seeds, and 
the red ones upon the purple ripe seeds. (William 
Prest, 16th September, 1872 ; Entom., November, 
1872, VI, 240.) 



Plate CXXXVI, fig. 6. 

An Enigma. — In October, I860, I beat for the first 
time a number of the larvae of Ewpitliecia succenturiata 
from Artemisia vulgaris. This plant is rather abun- 
dant on one side of Exeter, but, as happens so often 
with species that feed on some tree or plant of common 
occurrence, the locality for the pugs is very limited in 
extent, and except on two sides of one field it is in 
vain to hunt for them, however tempting the mugwort 
may appear in other hedges. This spot I have visited 
in most years, but with varying success ; latterly the 
greater care of the farmer in keeping his hedges pared 
has a good deal injured one's sport, and sometimes it 
has been difficult to get even a couple of larvae, where 
twenty years ago fifty or sixty could be got easily. 
Together with E. succenturiata there have always been 
a few E. absinthiata, and now and again (of course) 
E. castigata, also stray examples of Hemithea thymiaria, 
and one or two other geometers ; but last year (1883) 
there turned up what the late Mr. Buckler termed a 
" puzzler." I had sent him without examination the 
whole of my first take from the mugwort, bnt when, 
at his desire, I went a second time, and the larvae had 
grown bigger, I found amongst my captures one that 
I could not determine ; so when I sent it on I called 
his attention specially to it. In his reply he told me 
he had already detected a similar larva in the first 
consignment, which he had placed by itself for obser- 
vation, and that he had at length come to the con- 
clusion that it was something he had seen once before, 
but did not know what to call it. Dr. Knaggs had on 
one occasion sent him this larva (I presume from 
somewhere on the south coast), but the moth had not 
been bred. 

For a time, therefore, we were very pleased at our 


luck, and looked to be able to announce some species at 
least "new to Britain.'' But our hopes were not 
destined to be long-lived ; one of these two larvae my 
friend injured when changing its food, and the other 
gradually ceased feeding, and died of inanition, though 
it had been tried with various flowers, and had seemed 
for a time fonder of Solidago virgaurea than of the 
Artemisia ; it was captured about the middle of 
October, and it lived on to the 21st or 22nd of 

This year again I visited the locality on the 4th of 
October, and the first larva that fell into my umbrella 
(I got but a bare half-dozen of all sorts on that day) 
was another of these puzzlers ; whether or not I hurt 
it I cannot say, any way I was soon spared any un- 
certainty, for after it was boxed it never feci, and in 
three or four days' time was dead, and I have not 
been able to find another. 

In the hope that some one else may be more 
fortunate I send this note, with the following de- 
scription of my this year's example : 

Length 13 mm. Figure rather stumpy ; skin 
rugose ; ground colour rich creamy-white ; head 
brown ; the dorsal thread rather darker than the 
ground, and bordered throughout with strong streaks 
of full brown, which are widest just at the middle of 
each segment, and narrow where they meet at the 
folds ; in the same way the brown subdorsal line 
varies in width, swelling out in the middle of each 
segment, and tapering to the folds ; on segments 5 
to 9 these lines, dorsal and subdorsal, are united 
at their broadest by a deeper brown suffusion, which 
leaves the fold pale, but encloses the front pair of 
pale trapezoidals, and is hollowed out behind on either 
side the dorsal line, so as to let the hinder pair of tra- 
pezoidals stand as the apices of two pale spaces 
extending to the fold, and altogether presenting 
something of the effect of a good fat M, supposing its 
middle V filled up ; there is a redder-brown waved 


line just above the spiracles, which stand on pale 
ground colour, and beneath them a darker brown 
suffused region fading off paler into the pinkish-white 
of the belly, and there is a central ventral line of 

E. expallidata perhaps comes nearest to this larva, 
but the difference is apparent on comparison, and the 
stranger belongs to a smaller species. 

I am conscious my description does not express 
exactly what I see ; however, Mr. Buckler made very 
careful drawings, both life-size and magnified, and 
Mr. Bignell has now very kindly figured two segments 
for me, and preserved the last larva ; we have ample 
materials for identification, therefore, when the larva 
turns up again. (John Hellins, 15th October, 1884 ; 
E.M.M., November, 1884, XXI, 136.) 

The Enigma Solved, — I gave above some account of 
a "pug" larva from Artemisia vulgaris, which Mr. 
Buckler and I could not identify. Mr. W. Warren, 
of Cambridge, now writes to tell me that, after read- 
ing my description of it, he has no doubt it was the 
larva of E. innotata. At p. 257 of Vol. XXII of Bnt. 
Mo. Mag. Mr. Warren records the capture of four larvse 
on Artemisia maritima ; and in Vol. XXIII, p. 115, 
is the record of his exhibiting at the September meet- 
ing of the Entomological Society two specimens of 
the moth bred from these larvae ; they proved to be 
Eupithecia innotata; so, more lucky than myself, he 
has been able to identify his captures. 

I suppose Mr. Buckler did not think of E. innotata 
for this reason ; he had figured a Continental example 
of the larva for Mr. Harpur-Crewe in 1862, but cer- 
tainly the variety submitted to his pencil was not 
much like that which I found. However, Mr. Warren 
tells me all his four larvas varied from one another in 
appearance, so that E. innotata must be a species of 
which it is not sufficient to see a single larva. 

Probably others may have taken this species in the 
larva state. Mr. Buckler remembered having received 


an example from Dr. Knaggs many years ago, but 
Mr. Warren lias now enabled us to add for certain 
E. innotata to the British list. It may be as well 
perhaps to add that the moth can scarcely be sepa- 
rated from E. fraxinata, although the two larva? are 
distinct enough. (John Hellins, 1st March, 1887; 
E.M.M., June, 1887, XXIV, 10.) 

[The following description, which seems to be the 
last ever written by Mr. Buckler, and is simply headed 
"Fig. 16. 1883. Eupithecia" is referable to these 
Eupithecia innotata.'] 

In October, 1883, I received two small larvse feed- 
ing on flowers and seed-vessels, also on the leaflets of 
Artemisia vulgaris, from the Rev. John Hellins ; the 
first, excessively small, came on the 28th of Septem- 
ber, and the second on the 17th of October, scarcely 
so large as what the first oue had then become. On 
the 22nd I figured the biggest, which was exactly 
six lines long, and rather deeply rugose; the head is 
dark greenish, finely dotted with black, and on the 
crown the lobes are margined with blackish. The 
ground colour is at first white, but at the date when 
figured it was yellowish-white. On the back is a 
series of dorsal diamonds of black at first, afterwards 
brownish-black, through which runs a dorsal line of 
warm greenish-reddish brown; the subdorsal lines 
are black and conspicuous throughout ; a black spira- 
cular streak puffed shows plainly the round spiracles 
of brown colour; the streak turns from black to 
green by degrees, and then gradually paler. On the 
dark dorsal diamonds the anterior pair of tubercular 
warts are brown with short dark bristle ; the poste- 
rior ones are white warts, being on the white ground 
outside the diamonds. The markings on the front 
segments and on the four hinder ones are more linear 
modifications of the diamond forms, and are far from 
the black subdorsal lines. The ground of whitish at 
the posterior end becomes faintly tinged with greyish- 
green. At the beginning of each segment on the 


back the ground is tinged strongly with greyish, but 
at the end of each is whiter. Some rough [a word 
illegible here] minute white dots at either end of each 
segment give a granulous effect. On the belly the 
ground is a pale whitish or bluish-green, with a 
central ventral line of black, and a broad black stripe 
bounds the ventral surface on either side. 

At the end of October I tried the larvre with seed- 
vessels of Solid ago virgaurea, to which they at once 
took in preference to mugwort. Unfortunately while 
changing food a few clays later one was accidentally 
killed, and the other continued to feed only on the 
Solidago. This larva lingered on until the 22nd of 
November and then died, not having grown at all 
since it became the size of the one figured; and it 
seemed not to have fed for several days, as no frass 
could be seen. (William Buckler, 22nd November, 
1883; Note Book IV, 220.) 


Our fortunate discovery, in 1887, of Eupitliecia 
extensaria on this coast [Norfolk] was duly followed 
in September by the discovery of its larva feeding, as 
we expected, upon Artemisia maritima. 

It is a pretty larva of a rather bright green with 
whitish longitudinal lines, the subdorsal and spiracular 
lines being broad, and one along the ventral area 
narrow. The spiracular line is also more or less 
edged below with pinkish-brown. Head green, with 
pinkish-brown mouth ; legs also pinkish-brown, 
claspers green, swollen and glossy. 

The entire larva is a combined plan of mimicry, — its 
body is striped precisely like the curiously grooved 
sprays and footstalks of the Artemisia, which exhibit, 
alternately, green skin and white down ; the pinkish- 
brown mouth and feet, drawn together when the larva 
is at rest, exactly resemble the opening buds of the 


plant, and the two pairs of tumid claspers at the 
hinder extremity resemble in an extraordinary degree 
the thickened rounded segments of the leaves. This 
last-named resemblance seems at first sight unneces- 
sary, but its value is demonstrated by the discovery 
that this larva has a habit — which I have never ob- 
served in any other species — of standing apparently 
ujpon its head, that is to say, laying hold with its 
thoracic feet and extending its body stiffly, so that its 
hinder extremity is in the air. This, however, is only 
an occasional practice, and during the daytime it 
generally remains close to the stem, twisting itself 
among the leaves and blossoms, but at night feeding 
voraciously on both. 

When full-fed it descends to the ground, where it 
makes a tough cocoon, and changes to a pretty 
stumpy pupa of a chestnut-brown, with bright green 

The moths emerged in June and July, almost every 
larva producing an imago. Not a single parasite 
occurred among them. 

This species seems to be gregarious or excessively 
local in its habits, frequenting sheltered clumps of the 
food-plant, but not extending its range very far, 
although the Artemisia is plentiful on the coast. 
This excessive localism may be habitual with the 
species, or it may be an indication that it is quite a 
recent immigrant to our coasts ; and this last view I 
am inclined to favour, partly from the present 
immunity of the species from parasites, but still more 
from the circumstance that so acute and energetic a 
worker as Mr. Atmore had not previously observed 
it. He and I think it impossible that he should have 
so long overlooked it. I may add that from this gre- 
gariousness the species might probably be easily 
exterminated. (Charles G. Barrett, 9th March, 1889 ; 
E.M.M., April, 1889, XXV, 258.) 

Since I found the larvae of Eupithecia extensaria 
near Hunstanton at the end of August > 1889, I have 


reared some hundreds of them, and a few notes, 
supplementary to Mr. Barrett's (Ent. Mo. Mag., 
April, 1889, XXV, 258) will probably be not without 
interest. The larvas collected at large produced 
moths freely the following June, and I had no dif- 
ficulty in pairing a number of them over a growing 
potted plant of Artemisia maritima, which I had had 
for some time awaiting their advent. Soon eggs were 
deposited in considerable numbers ; they were placed 
singly, but often a number in close proximity, on the 
slender leaves of the food-plant, and each moth, after 
laying three or four eggs or so, would usually fly up 
from the plant to the gauze covering, to fly down 
again almost immediately to some other sprig, and 
continually repeat the same performance. No doubt 
its habit in the natural habitat would be to fly from 
sprig to sprig, and from plant to plant, in which case 
eggs from one moth might extend over a considerable 
area. The wonder, then, is that its habitat should be 
so exceedingly restricted, as it appears to be, on 
the Norfolk coast (see Ent. Mo. Mag., April, 1889, 
XXV, 258 and 398). 

The egg is of fair size, oblong-oval, bright glistening 
orange-yellow. Those first deposited, about the 17th 
of June, hatched out in numbers on the 29th and 
30th, and by the 4th of July all of them seemed to be 

The minute newly-emerged larvas were yellow, 
tinged with green. By the 14th July they were 
nearly a quarter of an inch long, pale yellow or 
greenish, and having faint indications of darker 
dorsal and subdorsal lines. A fortnight later, on the 
28th, many of them had attained to five-eighths of an 
inch, were slender, and tapered a little towards the 
head. The colour was now bright green, a little 
freckled with white dots, the subdorsal and spiracular 
stripes clear white, but as yet with no indication of 
the pink colouring on the spiracular region which 
was so noticeable in the parent larvae ; head bright 


green, the mandibles and also the tips of the anterior 
legs pale brown. 

Prior to this time the growing plant of Artemisia 
maritima had been eaten away, and it being incon- 
venient to have to send to Norfolk for a fresh supply 
every time it was wanted (as I had done the previous 
autumn), I tried the larva? with Artemisia vulgaris, 
and with the garden " southernwood," Artemisia abro- 
tanum. Of the former they ate very little, but I was 
pleased to find that they took to the latter with 
evident relish, and I have never since had any 
anxiety as to their food-supply, having fed them 
exclusively on this plant. 

On the 9th of August the largest larvae were 
nearly an inch and a quarter long, and apparently 
full-grown, and by the 20th they were spinning up 

They were proportionately rather stouter, but the 
only variation in colour from the description made on 
the 28th Julv was in the subdorsal lines, which were 
not so white, being formed apparently of a white 
powdering, through which the green distinctly as- 
serted itself; the spiracular stripes were still intensely 
white, as was also a ventral central stripe. 

What surprised me very much was, that in the over 
four hundred larva? I reared in 1890 not a single one 
showed the least trace of the pink marking so pretty 
and conspicuous in many of the captured larva? of 
1889, nor did it reappear at all in any of the larva? 
of the succeeding generation I reared last year. The 
pink colour was of exactly the same tint, and evidently 
appeared simultaneously with the flower-buds of the 
Artemisia maritima, and is doubtless a good example 
of protective assimilation ; whereas, the Artemisia 
abrotanum being always green (I have never seen it 
flower at all in Yorkshire), the appearance of the 
pink on the larva? would have been not only useless, 
but disadvantageous. But that the larva? should 
entirely lose every trace of it the very first season of 


their altered environment was to me most extra- 

One of Mr. Barrett's observations, that the larva 
has an occasional habit of " standing apparently npon 
its head" (Ent. Mo. Mag., XXV, 258), I am not 
able to confirm. This statement seemed to me so 
remarkable, that I spent hours, during all parts of the 
day and well on in the night, besides requesting a 
number of friends, to whom I sent larvse, to watch 
carefully, with a view to confirm it, but I believe 
none of us were able to do so. Possibly Mr. Barrett 
was not entirely mistaken on the point, but if not I 
am quite satisfied that the occurrence he noted was 
very exceptional if not purely accidental. 

The cocoon is spun among the debris on the ground, 
or very often among the leaves or stalks of the food- 
plant; it is oval, toughly formed of brown silk, and 
rather small for the size of the larva. 

The moths emerged in large numbers last June, 
and, so far as I could see, the changed food and modi- 
fied colouring in the larvas had not affected the 
imagines in any respect. From them I have now 
pupse again, and so hope to still further experiment 
with the species during this year. (George T. Porritt, 
14th March, 1892; E.M.M., May, 1892, XXVIII, 


Plate CXXXII, fig. 5. 

A short time ago Dr. Breyer, of Brussels, sent me 
a small publication in which he mentioned having 
found the larvae of the above-named Eajjithecia some- 
what plentifully in the seed-capsules of Campanula 
trachelmm, the " nettle-leaved bell-flower." As this 
plant is by no means uncommon in many parts of 
England, it seemed to me that there was no just cause 
or impediment why the insect should not occur as 


well, so one afternoon in August I sallied forth into a 
wood not far from hence (Drayton-Beauchamp, near 
Tring, Buckinghamshire), where I knew the plant 
grew, and set to work to look for the larvae of E. 
campanulata. Having gathered a few plants I knocked 
them against the sides of my umbrella, and soon saw 
a number of small pug larvse crawling about which 
were totally unknown to me. Having made up my 
bag I returned home, and shortly afterwards enclosed 
two full-fed larvae in a quill and posted them to Dr. 
Breyer, who forthwith returned answer that they 
were true and indubitable E. campanulata. 

I have much pleasure in appending a description of 
the larva and pupa. 

Larva rather short and stumpy, belonging to the 
absinthiata group, and resembling in general appear- 
ance the larva of that species and of E. minutata. 
Ground colour light ochreous-brown ; central dorsal 
line very deep brown or black, intersecting and 
uniting a chain of very strongly- defined black or deep 
brown lozenge-shaped spots placed in the centre of 
each segment ; subdorsal lines very slender and faint, 
blackish or deep brown; head dingy brown or black ; 
spiracular and central ventral lines dingy black or 
brown ; central dorsal spots becoming confluent 
and merged in the central line on the anterior and 
posterior segments ; both spots and ground colour 
varying considerably in intensity of colouring ; skin 
rough and wrinkled, and sprinkled with a few whitish 

It feeds upon the unripe seeds and seed-capsules of 
Campanula trachelium L. Till nearly full-grown it 
lives either in the dry corolla-tube or just at the 
crown of the capsule. In confinement it will feed 
upon garden species of Campanula. It is full-fed at 
the end of August and the beginning of September. 

The pupa is enclosed in a slight earthen cocoon. 
The thorax and wing-cases are golden yellow ; the 
abdomen is reddish ; the abdominal divisions and tip 


red. It is similar to the pupa of Eupithecia expalli- 
data. (H. Harpur-Crewe, 11th October, 1864; B.M.M., 
November, 1864, I, 142.) 

Eupithecia subciliata. 
Plate CXXXIV, fig. 5. 

One larva from a batch of eggs laid by a female 
sent by Mr. John Sang, of Darlington, to the Rev. H. 
Harpur-Crewe, and this, the only surviving larva of 
thirteen, arrived on the 3rd of May, 1872, feeding 
on maple, having been reared on this food from 
the egg. 

The larva was half an inch long, and stout in 
proportion, in its form resembling that of E. tenuiata. 
At this time it is of a tender green, matching exactly 
that of the young leaves of the maple. It is rather 
sluggish, and rests generally with its smallish head 
almost withdrawn into the second segment, which is 
then tucked under after the manner of Lobophora 
joolycommata. The ninth segment is perhaps the 
thickest, and from thence to the anal extremity it 
tapers just a little, and also from the fourth to the 
head, which is much smaller than the second. The 
segments have four transverse wrinkles on the hinder 
half of each of them. At this green stage, in its last 
skin, the dorsal stripe is of a very dark green, thick 
at the segmental divisions, but fading and attenuating 
towards the middle of each segment. The subdorsal 
region is defined by the rather concave border of a 
pale triangular mark at the fore part of the segment, 
attenuating to a mere line at the hinder part, and a 
tubercular dot of the green ground colour is seen on 
the paler triangular mark. On the side a little below 
is a paler short and oblique streak at the beginning 
of each segment, but it soon vanishes in the ground 
colour. Beneath this along the spiracular region is a 
broader stripe of paler, and inflated with a slight 


undulation. The spiracles are pale flesh-colour. The 
head is of a paler tint than the green of the body, and 
inclining to brown, and there are a few reddish-brown 
freckles on each side below. 

May 7th. — A great change has come over this larva, 
without its having grown but a mere trifle in length. 
It has become thicker and plumper-looking. The 
ground colour is of course green as before, but the 
paler markings are deepened so as to be less con- 
spicuous ; the area of the back is rather suffused with 
dull purplish-red, as though it had run from the 
dorsal stripe, which is now of this colour, but other- 
wise as before. The triangular marks on each side of 
it have disappeared, and the subdorsal region is 
marked by a rather undulating faintly paler greenish 
stripe, closely followed beneath by a darker rather 
purplish-red suffused line ; the spiracular region as 
before. The short tubercular bristles, pale greenish, 
are only visible with a microscope, as also the minute 
shn Greened texture of the skin. 

May 8th. — The larva is more generally suffused 
with pinkish, and has just begun to spin. 

The moth, a female, from this larva, appeared on 
the 1st of August. 

Several larvse, all similar to the above, were beaten 
from maple in blossom during May, and sent me by 
the Rev. H. Williams, of Croxton, near Thetford ; 
the moths from these appeared from the 13th to the 
27th of July, 1872. (William Buckler, July, 1872; 
Note Book I, pp. 168, 169.) 

On the 21st of May, 1876, Mr. J. P. Barrett, of 
Peckham, collected a number of larvse of Eupithecia 
subciliata from maple flowers at Box Hill, part of 
which he very kindly forwarded to me. 

Larva in length about five- eighths of an inch, and 
rather stumpy; the head has the lobes rounded, is 
smooth and polished, and is considerably narrower 
than the second segment. The body is cylindrical, 
plump and obese in the middle, but attenuated at the 


extremities ; the skin seems tough, and the segments 
being transversely wrinkled give it a puckered appear- 

There are two well-marked varieties, which, judging 
from those sent me, are about equally common. 

The form we will take as var. 1 has the ground 
colour yellowish-green, the green colour being 
strongest on the anterior segments ; the head is 
almost green ; a deep purple broad stripe, still darker 
at the segmental divisions, forms the dorsal line ; a 
pale shade of purple is also suffused rather broadly 
on each side of the dorsal Hue ; the subdorsal lines 
are greyish-white ; there is an equally pale waved 
stripe above the spiracles, and a pale but greener 
stripe along the spiracles. The ventral surface is 
uniformly dingy green. 

Var. 2 has the ground colour bright yellowish green, 
the head tinged with brown ; a dark green pulsating 
vessel forms the dorsal line ; subdorsal lines greyish - 
white ; there is a similarly coloured waved line above 
the spiracles, and a pale greenish stripe along the 
spiracles ; the segmental divisions are yellowish. The 
ventral surface is uniformly bright pale green tinged 
with yellowish. 

At the end of the month these larvae spun up 
between the leaves and amongst the flowers of maple. 

The pupa is scarcely a quarter of an inch long, and 
somewhat stumpy ; it is smooth and polished, rounded 
on the upper side, and has the wing-, antenna-, leg-, 
and eye-cases prominent. The colour is pale brown, 
with the segmental divisions darker and the wing- 
cases yellowish. 

The imagos appeared early in August. (George 
T. Porritt, 5th July, 1877; E.M.M., August, 1877, 
XIV, 68.) 



Plate CXXXVI, fig. 1. 

On the 5th July, 1871, I received from Mr. A. 
H. Jones five eggs of this species, which had been 
given him by a friend who had taken the moth in 

The larvse hatched on the 9th, and, as I understood 
the moths were beaten from the spruce fir, I supplied 
them with twigs of spruce, as well as some knotgrass 
and a few flowers, such as those of ragwort and 
golden-rod. Two or three of the larvse nibbled a little 
at the flowers and knotgrass, but soon dwindled and 
died. The other two attacked the spruce, burrowing 
into the buds which studded the ends and sides of the 
young shoots, but unfortunately, in my attempt to 
watch their proceedings, I injured them, so that they 
both died. 

However, early in July of the present year (1872) 
Dr. F. Buchanan White, by dint of hard work, 
obtained some eggs, some of which he kindly sent to 
Mr. Buckler, from whom they passed into my hands. 
Eight eggs reached me safely, and the larvae hatched 
on the 18th of July. Being now sure of the proper 
food, I gave them no choice, putting in only bits cut 
off from spruce shoots which were furnished with 
buds. As before, three of the larvae failed to find 
out their food in time, and were starved ; the other 
five fed away at once, but instead of attacking the 
buds, commenced operations by tunnelling into the 
inner baric or liber at the cut ends of the shoots ; they 
never touched the outer bark or the needle-like leaves, 
but ate their way onwards — in some cases for an inch 
or more — through the liber, until they reached a bud, 
into which they then burrowed. They ate rapidly, 
and their frass accumulated in proportion, some of it 
being extruded at the mouth of their tunnels, but 


they gave no other sign of their presence. How they 
would act in nature I cannot say, — whether they 
would ever open an outward passage, and so travel 
from bud to bud, or whether they would remain quite 
hidden after their first entrance ; but I am sure each 
individual eats enough to destroy all the buds on a 
long young shoot by the time it becomes full-grown. 
I left my larvae undisturbed for some time, but about 
the 6th of August I saw one of them come out of its 
tunnel and walk restlessly about ; I then carefully 
examined all the other tunnels, but could find only 
one other larva, and that apparently dead. I now 
put in a fresh supply of spruce, placing both the 
living and the dead larvae on it, and when I next 
looked I found the former busily engaged in finishing 
up the remains of its defunct relative ; I concluded, 
therefore, it had also been the cause of the disappear- 
ance of the others, owing, perhaps, to its being 
deprived of tender food by the drying up of the juice 
of the spruce buds. After this it fed away steadily 
on spruce, and moulted thrice, and on the 19th of 
August I sent it to my friend the Rev. H. Harpur- 
Orewe ; from him it was sent to Mr. Buckler, and fed 
away until the 25th of August, when it began to hide 
itself in some peaty soil with which it had been sup- 
plied ; on the 26th it disappeared totally, and by this 
time is, I hope, in the pupa state. It was supplied with 
bits of spruce shoots and bark, but it seemed to take 
naturally to the soil for pupation, so that it is probable 
that in nature it would eat its way out, and drop or 
crawl to the ground ; and the pupae should be looked 
for at the foot of the trees. 

The egg is very broadly ovate, much wider, although 
but little longer, than that of E. castigata; it is 
straw-coloured at first, afterwards becoming bright 

The young larva when first hatched is something 
of the colour of the bark of a spruce shoot, being pale 
olive-brown ; the head, plate on the second segment^ 



and anal tip being bard shining black. Under a lens 
all the warts come out distinctly, — black and shining, 
and furnished with hairs. After a moult or two the 
colouring becomes much as it continues up to full 
growth, and the whole appearance of the larva — both 
in figure and tint — makes one see at once that it is 
an internal feeder, and at the same time very little 
like the larva of any other Eupithecia on our native 
list. (John Hellins, 31st August, 1872; B.M.M., 
October, 1872, IX, 113 ; also William Buckler, June, 
1873, Note Book I, 192, who adds that a female moth 
emerged on 13th June, 1873, and that this was the 
first larva ever seen and reared, and the moth the 
first ever bred in this or any other country.) 

Description. — General colour dull pinkish-brown. 
Central, dorsal, subdorsal, and spiracular lines whitish, 
indistinct, especially the two latter. Skin wrinkled ; 
body sparsely studded with black tubercles and short 
hairs. Head and collar horny and glossy, dusky 

An odd, internal-looking animal, strongly resembling 
a miniature Cossus ligniperda. 

Feeds inside the buds and young shoots of spruce fir. 

Hatched on the 18th of July. Full-fed the last 
week in August. 

I am indebted to the kindness of the Rev* John 
Hellins, of Exeter, for the opportunity of seeing and 
describing this hitherto, I believe, undescribed larva. 
Mr. Hellins reared it from the egg. Mr. Buckler has 
succeeded in taking its portrait. (H. Harpur- Crewe, 
2nd September, 1872; E.M.M., October, 1872, IX, 

On the 6th of September, 1875, Sir Thomas 
Moncreiffe, Mr. W. Herd, and I started for a locality 
where Eupithecia togata has occurred tolerably freely, 
with a resolute determination not to return home till 
we had found the larva and made ourselves thoroughly 
acquainted with its food-plant and habits. The 
perfect insect always occurs in the neighbourhood of 


spruce fir trees ; to the spruces we therefore directed 
our attention. Long did we carefully scan the twigs ; 
diligently did we beat the boughs, but all in vain. 
"Bother the larvse ! " we all exclaimed. We stood 
together racking our brains, and staring up into a tall 
spruce. " I've got it ! " we almost simultaneously 
cried out ; " they are in the cones." " I'll go up," 
said Mr. Herd ; and up he went, and soon began to 
pelt us with cones. Amongst them were several from 
which a copious quantity of fresh frass was pro- 
truding. These were quickly laid open with a sharp 
knife, and very soon a lively, fat, pinkish-looking 
larva, very like a miniature Cossus ligniperda, was 
disclosed to view, which I at once recognised to be 
Eupithecia togata from a beautiful drawing which Mr. 
Buckler executed for me several years ago, from a 
larva reared on young shoots of spruce, from eggs laid 
by a captured female. A further search revealed 
sundry other larvae ; in one fresh-fallen cone we found 
no less than seven of various sizes. They feed 
between the scales of the cone, upon the ripe seed at 
the base. 

The larva is a uniform dull pink, more or less 
clouded and spotted with black on the dorsal seg- 
ments. Some of the smaller and younger specimens 
were very dingy. The head is black, with two small 
white dots at the base; on the neck are two con- 
spicuous black dots. 

When full-fed it quits the cone, and spins a slight 
cocoon on the surface of the earth. 

The pupa is bright red, and resembles that of 
Eupithecia subfuhata. 

Another somewhat similarly coloured larva, appa- 
rently that of a Tortrix, feeds inside the cones in 
company with that of Eupithecia togata. Sir Thomas 
Moncreiffe believes it to be Asthenia strobilella. (H. 
Harpur-Crewe, 1st November, 1875 ; E.M.M., 
December, 1875, XII, 157; and Entom., December, 
1875, VIII, 297.) 


On the 8th of September, 1875, I received from the 
Rev. II. Harpur-Crewe, while he was at Moncreiffe 
House, Bridge of Barn, larvae of this species, mining 
within a spruce fir cone. He, in company with Sir 
Thomas Moncreiffe and Mr. Herd, had gone to 
Dupplin on the 6tb, resolutely determined to find the 
larva in a state of nature, which they did. After 
much beating and searching in vain they unanimously 
came to the conclusion that it fed in the cones of the 
spruce fir, and Mr. Herd ascended to the top of the 
tree, and soon threw down cones from which resin 
and frass were protruding; and further examination 
revealed the larvae of E. togata in situ. Only a few 
larvae were collected on this occasion, as it was getting 
towards the close of the day before the discovery was 
made. The best find was in a single cone which had 
dropped under a tree, and was full of frass and con- 
tained seven larvae ; of these Mr. Harpur-Crewe sent 
me four, and a part of the cone to be figured, 
showing some of the holes in it excavated by the larvae, 
and also a quantity of frass. The larvae of these 
which I figured lived four or five days before pupating ; 
the others spun up on the second and third day after 
their arrival. 

Two moths emerged on the 3rd June, 1876. 
(William Buckler, 3rd June, 1876, Note Book III, 35.) 


Plate OXXXVI, fig. 2. 

On the 6th to the 9th of June, 1874, I received and 
figured three larvae of Eupithecia pumilata found by 
the Rev. John Hellins feeding on flowers of holly. 
The most mature one was quite white, having but a 
faint greenish dorsal line; the head was brown, on 
each lobe marked with darker brown. The next 
largest was of a pale ochreous-brown tint with darker 
brown markings, consisting of a dorsal line running 


through a series of prong-like marks, one on each 
segment from the fifth to the tenth inclusive; the 
space within the prongs more or less suffused or 
filled up with darkish brown; on the anterior and 
posterior segments the markings become merged into 
the dorsal line in somewhat of a lozenge or shuttle 
shape ; two lines of brown rather close together run 
along the subdorsal region, the lowest being broad, 
and a central line of broad lozenge shapes of faintly 
darker brown is on the belly. The head [description 
abruptly ends]. 

The imasfo from the first-mentioned whitish larva 
appeared on the 30th June, 1874; it was a female. 
(William Buckler, July, 1874; Note Book II, 69.) 


Plate CXXXVII, fig. 1. 

On the 18th of August, 1877, I received from Mr. 
F. D. Wheeler, of Norwich, a dozen larvse of Collix 
sparsata. They were of various stages of growth, but 
in a few days the largest were full-grown, when I 
described them as follows : 

Length nearly an inch, and of average bulk in pro- 
portion ; head rather flattened above, but rounded on 
the sides ; it is slightly narrower than the second 
segment, into which it can be partially withdrawn ; 
body cylindrical and of almost uniform width through- 
out, tapering only a little from the eleventh to the 
thirteenth segments posteriorly, and from* the third 
to the head anteriorly ; skin smooth and soft, having 
a few almost imperceptible very short hairs. Ground 
colour bright pale green, the head pale brown ; a 
green pulsating vessel showing between a double 
whitish line forms the dorsal stripe ; subdorsal lines 
also whitish, and there is another whitish line below 
them, but some distance above the spiracles ; below 
the spiracles is a conspicuous broad stripe, whitish 


with a very faint blue tinge ; segmental divisions 
yellowish ; spiracles black ; ventral surface almost 
uniformly pale green. 

Feeds on Lysimachia vulgaris. 

Before the middle of September all the larvae had 
spun up; the cocoons were formed on the bottom of 
the cage, and were tolerably firmly constructed of 
silken threads. 

The pupa is polished, about three-eighths of an inch 
long, and tolerably plump; it is of the ordinary shape, 
thickest at the ends of the wing-cases, and tapers 
rather suddenly to the anal tip ; eye-, antenna-, and 
wing-cases well defined. Colour of the abdominal 
segments rather pale brown ; head, thorax, and wing- 
cases green. 

The first imago emerged on the 11th of June follow- 
ing. (George T. Porritt, 4th January, 1879; Entom., 
February, 1879, XII, 58.) 


Plate CXXXVII, fig. 3. 

For several years I had been keeping by me a 
description of the larva of this species, taken from 
specimens beaten by myself, or sent to me by friends 
at various times, but it was not until 1875 that I was 
enabled, by the kindness of Mr. A. H. Jones, to de- 
scribe the egg also. 

I received some eggs on the 30th of May; the larvse 
hatched on the 1st of June, were full-grown in about 
four weeks, and spun up during the first week of 
July ; captured larvse usually spun up a week or so 
later. I am convinced from experience that aspen, 
Populus tremula, is the food, and though the larva 
will, for a time, eat other species of poplar, it will not 
thrive on them. 

The egg is broadly oval in outline, flattened, and 
laid on its side; the shell shining, and covered all 


over with delicate hexagonal reticulations ; the colour 
at first pale green, afterwards whitish. 

The young larva is at first pale dull white all over, 
afterwards becoming greenish. 

When full-fed the larva is about three-quarters of 
an inch long, its figure rather stout, of even bulk, 
cylindrical, but showing to the eye as if almost 
squared; this appearance seems to be caused, first, 
by the absence of a dorsal line, for the pulsating 
dorsal vessel is scarcely to be seen without a lens, 
and so the eye catches the subdorsal line as forming 
the edge of a flat back ; and secondly, by the habitual 
position of the larva, which, when at rest, contrives 
to lie perfectly flat on the surface of a leaf, somewhat 
in the fashion of those species which spin leaves 
together, though in this case I have never detected 
any spinning whatever; the lobes of the head are 
horny, and well defined; the hinder segments taper 
a little, and there are two short anal points ; the skin 
is somewhat wrinkled ; the ground colour is pale 
yellowish-green; the head is dull pale green with 
small black ocelli, the mouth reddish-brown; the 
subdorsal line (the only ornamentation) is pale yellow ; 
below it the side is more yellowish-green in tint than 
the back ; the spiracles very indistinct, pale yellow ; 
the belly whitish-green ; the segmental folds yellowish 
when the larva is at rest, when it is in motion they 
appear green; the anal points pinkish-white; alto- 
gether this is a very dull-looking larva, having so 
little variety of colour. 

When spinning, it makes a neat cocoon, three- 
eighths of an inch long, and just half as w T ide, com- 
pactly woven of dark silk, with fine grains of earth, etc., 
stuck over it. 

The pupa is five-sixteenths of an inch long, cylin- 
drical, the eyes prominent, the abdomen about one- 
third of the length and tapering off in a curve, and 
ending in a bifid spike ; the colour on the thorax and 
wings very dark greenish, on the abdomen deep red- 


dish-brown ; the skin rather glossy. (John Hellins, 
12th January, 1877; E.M.M., April, 1877, XIII, 


Plate CXXXVII, fig. 4. 

On looking over the scanty records of this species 
for the last twenty years, I find nothing to show that 
it has more than one brood in the year, or more than 
one food-plant, viz., privet, for the larva. In the 
belief, therefore, that some further light on its history 
may be desirable, I have here put together the few 
facts which within the last two seasons have become 
known to me, and which go to show that Lobophora 
viretata must at least be partially double-brooded, the 
flights being in May or June and again in August, 
and that, as is generally seen in the case of double- 
brooded species, the moths of the first flight from 
hybernated pupae are larger specimens than those of 
the second flight, and also that the larva is by no 
means confined to one food-plant. 

On the 12th of July, 1875, I received from the 
Rev. Bernard Smith three larvae which had been 
found by him each in a slight web amongst flower- 
buds of Ligustrum vulgare ; they continued to feed 
three days longer, eating, as I observed, the interior 
of the flower-buds, portions of the leaves, and the 
rind of the flower-stalks; on the 17th they were spun 
up, the moth appearing on the 20th of August. 

Mr. Gr. F. Mathew also informs me that at the end 
of last May and through June he was feeding up 
some Ptilophora pkmiigera, and that whilst providing 
them with fresh food he occasionally noticed between 
united leaves at the ends of the sycamore twigs some 
small geometers, but that taking them to be only 
Gheimatobia brumata he threw away most of them ; 
after the P. plumigera larvae had gone to earth he left 


the cage to itself, introducing no other larvae, but one 
day, about the middle of August, he looked into it to 
see that all was right, when he was astonished to 
discover two perfect specimens of Lobophora viretata 
evidently just out, and a day or two afterwards to 
find a third specimen, and thus became aware of the 
identity of the little larvae he had been previously 
throwing away. With both of us, therefore, Lobophora 
viretata proved double-brooded in confinement ; that 
it is double-brooded also in nature I obtained evidence 
on the 8th of September, 1875, when a friend, who 
was with me helping to search for larvae of Lycxna 
argiolus, found a very different larva sitting in the 
midst of a small umbel of blossom-buds of Hedera 
helix, which was surrounded with a very thin and 
transparent open-meshed web ; several of the buds 
were eaten out and a few grains of frass were clinging 
to part of the web. I felt a little puzzled for a few 
hours about this larva, which then had no marking, 
and was like the ivy-buds in colour when first found; 
but a subsequent examination convinced me that it 
was Lobophora viretata; it moulted on the 13th, and 
continued to feed well on ivy-buds until the 21st of 
September, when it burrowed into the earth, and the 
moth, a fine male, appeared early in the morning and 
was flying round its cage in the afternoon of the 6th 
of May, 1876. 

The full-grown larva is about half an inch in 
length, or a trifle more when stretched out, thick and 
stumpy in aspect, the head fitting partly within the 
second segment, which is smaller than the third and 
fourth, they being tumid both above and at the sides ; 
the last two segments a little taper to the end, which 
has two minute anal points ; all the segments are 
plump, yet having two or three transverse wrinkles at 
each end, though not very noticeable till the larva is 
full-fed ; the minute tubercles are warty ; when the 
larva is at rest, and often while feeding, the head is 
tucked under the thoracic segments, which are arched 


above, and from them again the back is arched to the 
end of the tenth segment. 

Individual examples vary in details of colouring, 
though the ground colour is always some pale green 
or tint of greenish; in one variety the head and 
thoracic segments are much suffused with pink, and 
on the fourth segment a lateral wedge-shaped trans- 
verse streak of darker pink extends from behind the 
legs upwards ; from thence each segment to the nintli 
has on the middle of the back a broad trilobed mark 
of dark pink, connected in the short intervals by a 
stout dorsal line of the same colour; on the back of 
the tenth the pink marking is more rudimentary, and 
on the three posterior segments is little more than a 
dorsal and imperfect subdorsal stout line, which all 
merge together at the anal tip ; along the pale greenish 
side is a faint and interrupted pinkish line, and on it 
the small tubercular warts are whitish ; elsewhere they 
are the same colour as the surface whereon they 
happen to be, and so are not noticeable; this is the 
case also with the spiracles. 

A second variety has the ground colour very pale 
and slightly glaucous in its delicate tint, though 
strengthened a little in depth anteriorly; the dorsal 
mark on the third and fourth segments is a line of 
purplish-pink which occurs again on the last four, 
while on each of the intermediate segments is a 
purplish-pink broad-arrow mark with its point close 
to the division in front, extending backwards about 
two-thirds of the length of the segment, the ground 
colour of the remaining third being rather paler than 
usual ; these arrow-heads are deepest in colour and 
rather suffused on the fifth and sixth segments, and 
each one following is more distinct and paler by 
degrees ; the subdorsal line is of the same pink colour, 
distinct and continuous throughout. 

A third variety I found in the autumnal larva 
before mentioned, which, previous to its last moult 
on the 13th of September, was of precisely the same 


tint as the young ivy-buds amongst which it was 
found, and destitute of any markings ; but after- 
wards, though it retained the same pale greyish-green 
ground colour, it became conspicuously marked with 
dark crimson on the head, more faintly on the second 
segment, where there was a dorsal line of the ground 
colour, and large crimson blotches on the back of the 
fourth and fifth segments, in which dorsal and sub- 
dorsal lines could be seen of still darker crimson ; a 
part of these blotches extended transversely down the 
side and round the belly on the junction of the fourth 
and fifth, and nearly so on the junction of the fifth 
and sixth; whilst towards the end of the sixth, 
seventh, and eighth segments on the dorsal division 
of each was a large and broad crimson, somewhat 
blunted, diamond-shaped blotch, edged behind with 
whitish ; at the division of the ninth and tenth 
segments were three short and very fine crimson 
streaks on the dorsal and subdorsal regions ; the 
eleventh was without marking, the twelfth crimson 
with ground-coloured dorsal and subdorsal lines, and 
the thirteenth crimson, the anal flap edged w r ith 
ground-colour, the front of the anal legs tinged with 
whitish, which continued down them as a stripe 
dividing a dark crimson blotch, from which proceeded 
a small dash forwards on each side of the belly ; the 
skin was soft and velvety, the head only glossy. 

The larva spins itself up in a cocoon about three- 
eighths of an inch in length by about a quarter of an 
inch in breadth, of a roundish oval figure, attached to 
a stone, a leaf of the food-plant, or other substance on 
the surface of the earth or a little below it, and com- 
posed exteriorly of grains of earth, and smoothly lined 
inside with silk. 

The pupa is plump-looking, about five-sixteenths of 
an inch in length, and nearly an eighth of an inch in 
diameter in the thickest part, namely, across the ends 
of the wing-covers, which are long in proportion and 
well developed, having the rays in slight relief; the 


thorax rounded near the head ; the eye-covers promi- 
nent ; the abdomen rough with fine punctured depres- 
sions except at the divisions, and tapering rather 
sharply towards the tip, which is furnished with several 
fine curved-topped bristles, the two central the 
longest ; its colour is a dark brownish olive-green on 
the back of the abdomen, with brown divisions, and a 
darker brown dorsal stripe becoming reddish near the 
tip ; the wing-cases are darkest between the rays, 
together with those of the antennas and legs bright 
olive-green, eye-covers brown, the whole surface 
rather shining. (William Buckler, 23rd October, 1876; 
E.M.M., January, 1877, XIII, 185; and Note Book 
HI, 7.) 

Thera juniperata. 
Plate OXXXVIII, fig. 1. 

On the 16th of August, 1872, I received several 
larvae of this species from Dr. F. Buchanan White, then 
at Eastferry, Dunkeld. 

They were feeding on juniper. 

The full-fed larva is nearly five-eighths of an inch 
long, tolerably uniform in size throughout, cylindrical, 
the thoracic segments generally a little arched when at 
rest, and the head bent inwards ; the anal flap is rather 
pointed, and shuts down between two rather blunt and 
small points that project from the body below. The 
head is greenish, more or less suffused with pink, the 
anterior legs also deeply suffused with reddish-pink ; 
the colour of the back, from one subdorsal pale yellow 
stripe to the other, is a delicate whitish blue-green with 
a faint darker dorsal line ; the spiracular inflated stripe 
of yellowish-white is tinged in a particoloured way 
along each segment, i. e. whitish, yellowish, and 
pinkish, but in some of the larvas it is wholly whitish, 
in one or two whitish at each end, and yellowish in 
the middle of a segment. The space along the side 


between the subdorsal and the spiracular stripe is 
bright yellowish-green, having a meandering line of 
deep red close to the spiracular stripe. The belly is 
of a paler yellowish-green than the sides, with a central 
pale yellow or a whitish stripe, and a very faintly paler 
line than the ground is on each side of the ventral 
surface. The spiracles are blackish, ringed with red- 
dish, but excessively small. N.B. — The subdorsal 
yellow stripes approximate towards the anal points. 

N.B. — The meandering line of red above the puffed 
spiracular stripe of the larva is sometimes only a blotch 
or two of red. 

N.B. — The yellow subdorsal stripes are bordered 
above by a stripe of the yellowish-green of the sides, 
but merge softly and gently into the whitish blue-green 
of the back. 

The pupa is five-sixteenths of an inch in length, 
moderately uniform in bulk, not very stout, wing-cases 
long. At first its colour is bright yellowish-green, 
bluish-green on the back, and the subdorsal yellow 
stripes distinct as in the larva?.; but in a few clays it 
changes colour to a dark olive-green broadly banded 
across the abdominal segments with black, but the 
subdorsal yellow stripes still remain distinct ; the 
head and thorax are marked with black, and the wing- 
covers are blackish-green. 

One moth appeared on the 27th of September, one 
on the 28th, and one on the 2nd of October, 1872. 
(William Buckler, October, 1872, Note Book I, 194.) 

Thera coniferata. 

Plate CXXXVII1, fig. 2. 

Notes on the respective Larvae of Thera simulata \_T. 
coniferata], T. obeliscata \_T. variata~\, and T.firmata. — 
The larvae of these species have all been described 
before, but the object of the following notes, carefully 


made by Mr. Buckler, is to bring together their dis- 
tinctive marks more fully. 

They are all shortish smooth loopers, coloured with 
various tints of green. 

Thera simulata (T. conifer ata) . — The larva is about 
five-eighths of an inch in length, stouter than that of 
the other species. The head is yellowish-green ; the 
back pale greenish-blue ; the dorsal line slender, of 
dull grass-green ; the subdorsal stripe of the same 
colour; below this comes a white stripe, and then a 
broad stripe of the dark green, reaching to the 
spiracles, and there edged with dark brown ; between 
this and the legs is a pale yellowish stripe ; the legs 
are greenish. 

(For the descriptions of the other two species, see 
under T. variata and T. firmata.) 

(John Hellins, 23rd January, 1867; B.M.M., May, 
1867, III, 277.) 

Theiia variata. 

Plate CXXXVIII, fig. 3. 

The larva of T. obeliscata (T. variata) is the same 
length as that of T. simulata (T. conifer ata) ; the anal 
segment is pointed, and very minutely bifurcated at the 
extremity ; the head bent under, in colour green ; the 
back bluish-green ; the dorsal line darker green, and 
edged with lines paler than the ground colour ; the 
subdorsal line commencing on the second segment as a 
yellowish-white line, then widening into a broad stripe, 
and assuming a blue tinge edged with white, till the 
tenth segment, when it contracts, and assumes the 
yellowish tint again ; below the spiracles a fine 
yellowish-white line, but broader at each end ; the 
belly green, with a central yellow line, and on either 
side an indistinct whitish line. Legs tinged with red. 
(John Hellins, 23rd January, 1867; E.M.M., May, 
1867, III, 278.) 


Plate CXXXVIII, fig. 4. 

The larva of Thera firmata is the same length as 
that of Th. simulata {conifer ata) ; the anal segment is 
decidedly forked ; the head slightly bent under, red, 
with a brown streak over each lobe. Ground colour 
dark bluish-green ; dorsal line of a much darker tint 
of the same ; the subdorsal whitish, fine and uniform 
in width, quite white on the second segment ; below 
the spiracles is a fine whitish line, tinged with yellow 
on the hinder segments ; the belly green, with three 
equidistant pale lines. (John Hellins, 23rd January, 
1867 ; E.M.M., May, 1867, III, 278.) 

Ypsipetes ruberaria. 
Plate CXXXVIII, fig. 5. 

On the 9th of June, 1888, I took a female of 
Ypsipetes ruberaria, w r hich I put in an inverted bell- 
glass containing a sprig of sallow in water, and 
covered with leno. In the course of two or three 
days it had laid on the upper side of the leno, by pro- 
truding its ovipositor through the holes, about ninety 
eggs. In the case of a female taken last May the eggs 
were chiefly laid on the central stalk of a female sallow 
catkin, which would seem to be the natural laying- 
place of this species, as it was also utilised by a female 
which my friend Mr. H. W. Vivian bred from some 
pupae I gave him in 1889. 

The egg is oval in shape, generally a little broader 
at one end than the other. The top and bottom are 
rather flattened, so that the height of the egg is nearly 
the same all over, except close to the sides, which are 
consequently rather straight. The whole surface is 


covered with small irregular depressions, generally 
hexagonal, pentagonal, or oval, of which there would 
be about thirty along the edge of a median transverse 
section. The egg is whitish when first laid, and after 
a day or two becomes pinkish in tinge, the ridges 
between the depressions being here and there marked 
with blotches of darker pink, which increases the 
general pink tinge when the egg is seen with the 
naked eye. 

The larva, when first hatched, is remarkably lively, 
crawling very fast; it is difficult to keep in confine- 
ment, as it seems to be able to get out of almost any- 
thing ; after a day or two, however, it settles down to 
its food (sallow), and gives no more trouble. It seems 
to like best the under-side of a sallow leaf, especially 
of a stipule, as a place of residence, spinning thereon 
a white silken covering for itself, on the outside of 
which it sticks the down from the leaf, thereby 
making its abode very inconspicuous. In its earlier 
days it is gregarious in its habits, several larvae living 
under one covering; as it grows older it becomes 
more solitary, though, even up to the time of its being 
full-fed, two will often inhabit the same house. In its 
older stages it generally draws two leaves together 
and lives between them, or sometimes makes its home 
by folding over a part of a leaf. It rests with its head 
curled round to its tail, and it is remarkable how small 
an abode one or two good-sized larvae seem to find 
comfortable. At night it sallies out and feeds upon 
its own or the neighbouring leaves, but not on the 
part it has spun over. It remains nearly full-fed for 
a very long time before it forms its cocoon ; most of 
my brood appeared to be full-fed early in September, 
and on the 25th of October there were still some that 
had not spun up for pupation. The larva descends to 
the surface of the ground about the middle of October, 
and there spins a tough cocoon of silk mixed with 
small pieces of earth and rubbish, in which it shortly 
turns to a pupa. In one or two cases the larva spun 


up and turned between the sallow leaves, but this was 
not at all of frequent occurrence. 

When quite young the larva is rather transparent, 
pale greenish, with a ringed appearance, owing to a 
very distinct dull red transverse band on the back of 
each segment, and with a dark brown head and plate 
on second segment, which become lighter with suc- 
cessive changes of skin. The markings on the body 
become less defined at each change, and gradually 
more marbled with ochreous, the red bands soon 
losing their definite outline and becoming more 
suffused over the whole segment, except the folds 
where the segments unite, which remain green. 

The description of the larva in its last stage is as 
follows : — Length about one inch ; rather stout, taper- 
ing very slightly towards the extremities. The head 
is rather flat, the rest of the body nearly cylindrical. 
There is a rather striking oblique fold on the side of 
each segment in the neighbourhood of the spiracles, 
and the whole body has a somewhat wrinkled appear- 
ance. The head is brown, much speckled and blotched 
with darker brown ; the clypeus and mandibles are 
dark brown ; the second segment with a shining, very 
pale ochreous dorsal plate, marked with brown, and 
having a broad darker brown dorsal band extending 
to the subdorsal lines; the body is verdigris-green, 
marbled with dingy ochreous, and more or less 
suffused with pink, sometimes almost crimson, the 
green often entirely disappearing except between the 
segments ; the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth seg- 
ments more entirely ochreous, the latter having a 
shining ochreous anal plate, generally slightly dotted 
with black ; a similar plate extends over the whole of 
the hinder half of the anal clasper down to the foot; 
the dorsal, subdorsal, and two other lines above, and 
one just below the spiracles are greyish, and rather 
darker than the ground colour; the line immediately 
above the spiracles very distinct and blackish on the 
second, third, and fourth segments, the dorsal line also 

VOL. viii. 5 


being more distinct than the rest. The spiracles are 
black, small but distinct; the legs are marked with 
pale brown, and having a double narrow black mark 
in front where they join the body ; the claspers are 
pale ochreous, hooklets reddish-brown ; the under side 
of the body is pale ochreous, tinged with pink, and 
with verdigris-green showing through here and there. 
The usual warts are polished, but otherwise like the 
adjacent skin, except for a small dark brown dot in 
the middle, from which springs a pale ochreous 

The pupa is very dark brown, polished, much paler 
between the segments; the wing-cases, etc., are very 
distinct ; there are two small hair-like projections 
from the last segment. 

The moths began to emerge on the 6th of May, 

I find that the imago, like its relative, Ypsipetes 
elutata, will fly on nights when scarcely anything else 
is on the wing ; but it is not, so far as I have seen, an 
abundant species, and is also local. I only take it 
here in one place, though there is plenty of sallow in 
the neighbourhood. 

I delayed the publication of the above in order to 
obtain fuller information on one or two points, and 
have been unable to secure eggs until the present 
year, 1891. (Nelson M. Richardson, 13th September, 
1891 ; B.M.M., November, 1891, XXVII, 296.) 

Ypsipetes impluviata. 

Plate CXXXVIII, fig. 6. 

On the 11th of September, 1867, Mr. George Baker, 
of Derby, very kindly sent me several larvse of this 
species feeding in curled-up leaves of alder. After 
they came into my care I noticed that they lived and 
fed continually in concealment, which they managed 
to do either by uniting leaves together (somewhat 


after the manner of the Gymatojphorse) , or else by curl- 
ing one side of a leaf over the other. 

The usual position in repose is a curve, the head 
being turned sideways round to the middle of the 
body; but when a larva is exposed by being ejected 
from its dwelling, it loops with activity, pausing 
occasionally, and stretching its head in all directions 
in a most impatient manner, as if in search of another 
retreat. It is only when so stretched out that its 
actual length can be momentarily observed. 

When full-grown, it is then seen to be about seven- 
eighths of an inch in length, and rather thick in pro- 
portion, the body very slightly depressed, of about 
equal bulk throughout, for it tapers but a very little 
just at each extremity. 

In some the ground colour of the back is pale 
purplish-grey, or brownish-grey, with the belly of the 
same; the head is brown, freckled with still darker 
brown ; the back of the second segment is black, with 
the dorsal line running through it as a pale greyish 
line, but on all the other segments it is wider, black 
in colour, and thickest about the middle of each seg- 
ment, suggestive there of an elongated diamond on 
some of them. The rather thick subdorsal line is of 
the pale ground colour, begins on the second segment, 
and is equally well defined throughout its entire 
length, by reason of the back above being freckled 
and suffused more or less with dark purplish-brown, 
especially around the thickest part of the dorsal line, 
where, on each side of it, an indistinct dark wedge is 
thus formed with its base on the dorsal line, and its 
point directed outwards and forwards; besides the 
general clouding and darkening of the back, there is 
also a series of black wedge shapes that tend to define 
the upper edge of the pale subdorsal line much more 
clearly ; these are placed at the beginning and end of 
each segment, the anterior one pointing backwards, 
and the posterior one forwards, while on the thoracic 
segments they become united and linear. 


The side, as far as the spiracles, is freckled and 
clouded with dark purplish-brown, similar to the back, 
and a fine longitudinal line of the pale ground colour 
runs through it near the lower part; the spiracles are 
black, and followed by a broad stripe of the pale 
ground colour, and then a fine interrupted line of 
blackish ; the tubercular dots are black, each emitting 
a hair, and the prolegs tipped with blackish. 

In other examples the ground colour is pale pinkish, 
ochreous, or flesh- col our, and the markings are brown 
and much paler; the black wedge shapes almost, or 
even entirely, absent, and the dorsal line is inter- 
rupted at the beginning of the segments. 

By the middle of October these larvse had ceased 
feeding, and did not retire to earth, but remained 
motionless within their hiding-places in the leaves, 
and so continued until the beginning of December, 
when they became pupae therein. 

The pupa is nearly half an inch long, rounded at 
the head, thick in the middle, the abdomen tapering 
to a point with anal spikes attached to the threads 
spun within the leaf; its colour is bluish-black, and it 
is entirely without gloss. 

The perfect insects appeared from the 22nd to the 
24th of May, 1868. (William Buckler, January, 
1870; B.M.M., July, 1870, VII, 42.) 


Plate CXL, fig. 7. 

I received a batch of eggs of this species through 
the kindness of Mr. Owen Wilson, of Carmarthen, on 
the 16th of June, 1876. 

The eggs were globular, smooth, and polished, and 
uniformly pale straw-colour ; two days later, or three 
or four after they were deposited, they had become 
orange, and before hatching changed to lead colour. 


The young larvae appeared on the 23rd of June, 
were slender, dark olive-brown, the head brownish. 

They fed up rapidly on young cabbage leaves, and 
by the middle of July were full-grown. 

Length of full-grown larva about an inch, and of 
moderate bulk in proportion ; the head has the lobes 
rounded, and is considerably narrower than the second 
segment ; body rounded above and below, but the two 
portions are distinctly divided by the skin at the sides 
forming a raised lateral ridge ; it is of tolerably uni- 
form width, tapering only a little towards the head ; 
the segments are distinctly divided, and the skin has 
a somewhat tough appearance. 

Ground colour dingy ochreous, but (except on the 
last four or five segments) is almost entirely covered 
with dark, dull smoke-colour; in some specimens 
this dark shade is nearly black, whilst in others a 
very dark green tint is observable ; head glossy, pale 
brown, with darker brown spots; dorsal line darker 
green, paler on the posterior segments ; subdorsal 
lines rather waved, grey ; there is also an indistinct 
finer grey line between the subdorsal and spiracular 
regions, but there are no perceptible spiracular lines. 
On the anterior of each segment and situated ofi the 
dorsal line is a conspicuous rather large black spot, 
and this spot is generally preceded by an equally 
conspicuous paler mark, of various tints in different 
specimens, in some being pink, in others grey or 
yellowish ; spiracles distinct, black, the raised tuber- 
cles grey. 

Ventral surface dull ochreous or (in some specimens) 
pinkish ; it has a fine smoke-coloured central line 
enclosed in a band of the ground colour, outside of 
which, on each side, is an olive band, bordered 
outwardly with a fine smoky line, and there are faint 
indications of one or two other waved lines between 
this and the spiracular ridges ; on each side, too, is a 
double series of black dots of two sizes, a large one 
being in front, followed by a smaller one. 


The pupa is enclosed in a silken cocoon, and is 
about two-fifths of an inch in length, rather dumpy, 
smooth, and highly polished; thorax cylindrical; 
wing-, eye-, and antenna-cases boldly defined ; the 
abdomen attenuated, but not rapidly, towards the 
anal point, which, however, is fine and sharp. Colour 
dark brown, the antenna-cases and outer edges of 
the wings pale brown ; the whole changing to deep 
mahogany-brown just before the emergence of the 

All the brood, forming a very fine series, emerged 
about the middle of August. (George T. Porritt, 
4th January, 1877; B.M.M., February, 1877, XIII, 


Plate CXL, fig. 10. 

The caterpillar of Coremia quadrifasciaria is clearly 
divided into two colours by a line running from the 
head to the extremity of the last pair of claspers ; the 
spiracles lie in this line of division. The dorsal 
space is brown, variegated in shade from a light 
smoky brown to almost black by interrupted lines 
running throughout its length, interspersed with 
numerous light-coloured blotches ; four rows of 
minute warts run down this space, from each of 
which a short bristle is emitted. The head is slightly 
smaller than the second segment, and of two shades 
of brown. The spiracles are black. The ventral 
space is of a very light brown, having a tinge of pink, 
and variegated, like the back, with blotches of a much 
lighter shade. The caterpillar thickens towards the 
middle, tapering gradually to each extremity. 

It assumes the form of an Ionic volute when 

These larvse were hatched on the 28th July from eggs 
deposited by a female captured a day or two previously. 


They have fed at various intervals throughout the 
winter on Galium mollugo, and they moulted for the 
last time about the middle of March. (P. H. Jennings, 
13th April, 1875; Entom., May, 1875, VIII, 109.)" 

CAMPT0C4RAMMA bilineata. 
Plate CXLI, fig. 1. 

Received from the Rev. H. Williams, of Croxton, 
25th March, 1871, feeding on chickweed and grass. 

Ground colour pale green, dorsal line dark green 
between two stripes faintly paler than the ground 
colour; subdorsal stripe of pale whitish flesh-colour; 
tubercular dots same colour ; spiracular region puffed, 
and an interrupted stripe of pale flesh-colour close 
below the spiracles, chiefly visible at the beginning of 
each segment and down the front of the anal legs ; a 
double central stripe of pale flesh-colour down the 
belly, and a very thin line of the same colour on either 
side at a little distance, followed at an interval by a 
similar line at the beginning of each segment only, 
interrupted from thence. 

This geometer is about an inch long, of moderate 
substance and uniform bulk, but rather slender, 
slightly tapering at the very extremities only. 

By the 12th of April it became yellower green and 
fading generally. Very fine soft hairs in the usual 

N.B. — The figure, taken too late, shows yellow- 
green. (William Buckler, 12th April, 1871 ; Note 
Book I, 68.) 

Another specimen from Rev. H. Williams, which 
emerged on the 25th of June, 1871. The drawing of 
the larva is exact in size. 

The ground colour as far as the spiracles of a drab 
colour; the dorsal line much deeper in tint, thickened 
towards the segmental folds ; the subdorsal paler 
drab stripe finely outlined with darker ; between this 


and the spiracles is another undulating stripe less 
pale and faintly outlined with darker; spiracles drab 
colour, hardly visible. Belly of an ochreous flesh- 
colour, with a central paler broad stripe and a 
narrower one on each side, but at some distance. 
Tiny warty tubercles, each with a fine short bristle. 
It is rather rugose. Feeds on grass. Tucks its head 
under the frontal segments on the least alarm. 
Another larva just like it, but rather yellowish-green. 
(William Buckler, 25th June, 1871 ; Note Book I, 

Camptogramma fluviata. 
Plate CXLT, fig. 2. 

In the autumn of 1858, in the Entomologist's 
Weekly Intelligencer, vol. iv, page 188, 1 published my 
first observations on this species, having then lately 
reared it from the egg, and proved that the difference 
between the light and dark forms of the imago was 
merely sexual. Since then I have reared many more 
broods from the egg, and have largely supplemented 
my early record of the various stages, until it seemed 
that the additional information thus collected might 
justify another and longer note. 

A more easy species to rear in confinement I do 
not know ; it seems quite tame and domestic ; only 
let the temperature be warm enough, the larva feeds 
quietly and rapidly on food that grows everywhere ; 
it spins up contentedly; ninety-nine pupae out of 
every hundred produce perfect imagos, and these last 
again make no difficulty about pairing and continuing 
their race. In fact, cold alone, and no mysterious 
instinct as to certain seasons in the year, puts a limit 
to the number of broods in any given number of 
months. Indoors, if the food can be supplied, 
perhaps six or seven broods might be reared in a 
year; in 1862 I had a female captured on the 22nd 


of May, and 152 days after, on the 21st of October, 
without forcing, I bred its great-grandchildren, and 
then did not care to carry the strain further. Out- 
doors, of course, the character of the season would 
influence the number of broods, but in favourable 
times, with an early summer and mild winter, I feel 
sure there might be five broods ; and in this I am 
supported by the published notices of captures made 
from May to January, both months inclusive ; Mr. H. 
Rogers records the capture of a female at sugar on 
the 1st of January, 1858 (Entomologist's Weekly 
Intelligencer, vol. vii, p. 52). In colder seasons there 
might be no more than three, or even two broods, 
every stage being greatly delayed by absence of 
warmth. Thus I have one brood recorded which 
went through the whole cycle of transformations in 
twenty-nine days during a hot August, and another in 
a colder time which took sixty-two days ; whilst the 
brood which hybernates in the pupa state must, of 
course, take to its share a much longer period, from 
October or November till next May or June. 

The larva, when at large, is no doubt polyphagous, 
and I know it has been found or reared on Senecio 
vulgaris, Polygonum persicaria, and Agrimonia eupa- 
toria. Like other geometers that feed on low plants, 
it is quiet and sluggish in its movements. 

In this neighbourhood (Exeter), with the exception 
of one specimen beaten out of a hedge near a salt 
marsh and a few others taken at ivy flowers, the 
great majority of our captures of the imago have been 
made at the street gas-lamps. 

The egg presents no striking peculiarity ; it is 
bluntly oval in outline, flattened ; the shell glistening, 
and faintly covered with very shallow and irregular 
reticulations ; in colour very pale yellow, or greenish- 
yellow, turning smoky just before the exit of the 

The larva is subject to a great range of variation in 
colour, but there is one variety which certainly out- 


numbers the rest, and may fairly be taken for the 
type ; the description of the figure suits all varieties. 

The length, when full-grown, is about three-quarters 
of an inch, the figure proportionately stout for an 
ordinary geometer, tapering towards the head, cylin- 
drical behind, and slightly flattened forward ; head 
smaller than the second segment, with its lobes well 

The ground colour is greenish-grey, the head 
striped with the commencement of the dorsal and 
subdorsal lines ; the dorsal line dusky and slender, 
dividing the lobes of the head, and running thence 
continuously to the commencement of the fifth seg- 
ment; the subdorsal stripe begins also on the head, 
and is rather paler than the ground, but edged on 
either side with a fine dusky line ; on the folds 
between segments 5 — 10 are five diamond-shaped 
marks, whitish, but bordered with dusky or blackish 
outlines, and with the dorsal line appearing in the 
centre of each as an elongated black spot ; the centre 
of the back, after the middle of the tenth segment, 
becomes much paler, with faint blackish As instead of 
diamonds, and the subdorsal lines grow indistinct; 
just above the spiracles is a dark line, continuous on 
segments 2 — 5 and 10 — 13, but showing only as five 
black dashes at the intermediate folds; the spiracles 
are small and obscure, but ringed with black, and 
placed on ground slightly paler than the rest of the 
body ; the tubercular dots are whitish-grey ; the 
segmental folds show slightly reddish ; the belly is 
pinkish-grey, paler down the middle, and with a 
central and two subspiracular fine dusky lines ; the 
ventral legs have a dark streak, and the anal legs a 
light streak down them. 

Some varieties have the markings as above, but the 
ground colour all over pinkish-grey; others have a 
grey ground, without any green or pink tinting in it. 

There is a very decided variety of a light yellowish- 
green colour, without much noticeable marking, 


though it is generally possible to trace the dorsal and 
subdorsal lines faintly, whilst the row of dark dashes 
above the spiracles show firm and distinct, being 
apparently the last to change and disappear of all the 

In some broods occur varieties having the greenish- 
grey ground colour, and the usual markings on the 
front and hind segments, but with the first half of the 
back of each diamond-bearing segment coloured soft 
dull pink, so that from above the larva looks to be 
banded with green and pink ; the diamonds pinkish- 
white ; the belly greenish. 

There is another variety with a purplish bloom laid 
over a dull green. 

Another has the greenish-grey ground, but with all 
the markings, diamonds, and lines scarcely showing 
except just at the folds, where the dusky lines that 
form them turn red. 

Another has the ground on the back of a dull 
pinkish-brown, all the lines showing light red at the 

Another again has the ground pale brown, the 
diamonds bordered by darker brown tinged with 
olive, the edgings of the subdorsal stripe distinct and 
wavy, and bearing some small black dashes on its 
under side at the end of each segment; the black 
dashes above the spiracles very distinct; the spiracles 
themselves black. 

As in the greenish varieties sometimes, so also with 
the brown ones, there are individuals which show a 
purplish bloom. 

In some of the paler greenish and ochreous 
varieties, the back of the hinder segments bears, 
instead of As, some pairs of indistinct freckled lines, 
arranged almost in the form of stunted crosses. 

When full-fed, the larva retires into any cover it 
can find at hand, and either just below the surface of 
the soil or amongst moss or dried bits of its food, 
constructs a perfect but thin and weak cocoon of silk, 


drawing in enough particles of dust, etc., to give it an 
oval form. 

The pupa is a quarter of an inch in length, with a 
rather irregular contour ; the lobes of the head and 
the eyes prominent ; the wing-cases extending two 
thirds of its length, the antennas and leg-cases show- 
ing ; the abdomen tapering off rather rapidly, and 
ending in a stumpy spike furnished with two fine 
spreading hooks ; the skin polished, yet finely punc- 
tured, the wing-cases more finely punctured still ; the 
colour is a rich brown, with the abdominal divisions 
light red. 

I have bred several hundreds of the moths at 
various times, but never yet met with an instance of 
either one of the sexes assuming the colouring of the 
other. (John Hellins, 14th February, 1871 ; E.M.M.. 
May, 1871, VII, 279.) 

Phibalapteryx lapidata. 

Plate CXLI, fig. 4. 

In October, 1870, I received, through Mr. Buckler, 
some eggs of this species which had been obtained by 
Mr. S. 11. Fetherstonhaugh from a moth captured by 
him in Ireland. Not knowing when to expect the 
larvae I kept a portion of the eggs in a pill -box, and 
put the rest out of doors on some moss. The former 
soon changed colour, but shrivelled up without pro- 
ducing anything ; the latter remained without change 
till the beginning of May, 1871, when the larvae 
appeared in the course of the first week. At first I 
could not tell what food to give them, but luckily, 
before I lost all, I thought of trying Clematis, and on 
this I succeeded in o^ttin^ three of them to feed. Of 
this trio one died almost immediately, another fed on 
till the end of June and died, whilst the third about 
the same time became a pupa. The moth, however, 
died without emerging, although it was so far deve- 


loped that the markings of the wings could be 
plainly distinguished on removing the pupa-case. 

I am able, therefore, to offer some descriptions of 
the earlier stages, but the question as to the proper 
food-plant remains to be settled; the moths seem to 
affect coarse grass and rushes, and Galium verum, I 
understand, grows abundantly where they have been 
taken by Mr. Fetherstonhaugh. 

The egg is of a long oval outline, one end blunter 
than the other, flattened, and with a depression on the 
upper surface ; the shell covered all over with very 
faint pentagonal network ; colour yellow, changing 
just at last to olive. 

The young larva is smooth, slender, tapering, pale 
ochreous, with brownish dorsal and subdorsal lines. 
After it begins to feed the central part of the body 
becomes greenish, but after a moult or two, and as 
soon as it really begins to grow, the ground colour 
becomes pale greenish-grey (much like that of imma- 
ture Phibalapteryx tersata), except on the last seg- 
ments, which, with the belly, are more ochreous, the 
dorsal line still brownish, two fine lines on the side, 
and a stouter one just above the spiracles. 

When full-grown the length is rather over seven- 
eighths of an inch, the figure cylindrical, no longer to 
be called slender, but moderately stout, and nearly 
uniform throughout, except the head and second seg- 
ment, which taper a little, as does also the thirteenth; 
the skin smooth. The ground colour of the back and 
sides pale whitish-yellow, the back slightly glaucous, 
the sides more white ; the thin dorsal line formed of 
greyish freckles ; the subdorsal rather higher up than 
usual, formed also of greyish freckles, darkest near 
the head, and growing paler towards the thirteenth, 
and bearing both the dorsal tubercular dots. Below 
on the side comes a fine greyish line, and just below 
that again a broader and darker stripe, with still 
darker freckles. The spiracular region and belly are 
pale buff ; the spiracles and all the usual dots are black. 


Through the belly run a central line and three pairs of 
side lines, all composed of greyish freckles ; the head 
is grey, freckled with a darker tint of the same. 

The whole appearance of the full-grown larva much 
resembles that of a Eubolia. 

The pupa was placed just under the surface of the 
fine soil, with no cocoon, but just a few threads ; about 
one-third of an inch in length, cylindrical, and rather 
blunt at the ends; polished, at first of a delicate, 
almost golden, brown, afterwards more reddish- 

As Mr. Fetherstonhaugh has been fortunate enough 
to secure eggs again this autumn, and has kindly sent 
me some more, I hope to be able to verify all these 
observations, and probably add to them, next season. 
(John Hellins, 14th November, 1871; E.M.M., 
December, 1871, VIII, 165; and William Buckler, 
Note Book I, 112.) 

Phibalapteryx lignata. 
Plate CXLI, ^g. 5. 

As long ago as the 5th of September, 1862, I had 
eggs of this species from Mr. Fenn ; but, through 
ignorance of any suitable food-plant, could do nothing 
with the larvao. 

Again, on the 8th of July, 1863, I had eggs from 
Mr. Birks, and managed to keep a larva or two alive 
for some time on Galium mollugo and Clematis flammula, 
but could not bring them to full growth. 

During the past season, however, I have been much 
more successful, thanks to Messrs. Barrett, Birks, and 
Carrington, to whom I am indebted for supplies of 
eggs and information concerning the imago. 

The natural food-plant is probably Galium palustre, 
which, I am told, grows in the habitat of the moth, for 
I have found the larvae thrive well on G. saxatile. 


although, as shown above, G. moling o did not suit 
them. But this is a point of taste in which this species 
is not singular, for I have known some three or four 
others which would change about from Galium verum 
to G. saxatile and vice versa, but would not go so far 
as to include G. mollugo in their bill of fare. 

It appears certain that there are two flights of the 
moth, the first consisting of larger and finer indivi- 
duals, and lasting from the end of May to some time 
in July ; and the second of more stunted growth, on 
the wing some time about the end of August. 

The second brood may be only partial, and may 
depend more or less on the character of the summer. 
But, whatever be the extent of it, it must be found 
constantly in different localities. The date given 
above for eggs — the 5th of September — points to a 
second brood ; and Mr. Carrington, from the experi- 
ence of former years, made sure of getting eggs a 
second time last season, and sent me some on the 29th 
of August. 

The dates of the transformations observed by me 
last year are as follows: — Mr. Birks sent me eggs, 
which arrived in the shape of young larvae on the 18th 
of July. They fed up very rapidly, and began to spin 
on the 5th of August, and on the 20th I bred several 
moths. These I could not get to pair, so Mr. Carring- 
ton, as mentioned above, forwarded eggs on the 29th 
of August. The larvaa hatched on the 3rd of Septem- 
ber, but, owing to my inability to supply them with 
fresh food in sufficient quantity (for Galium saxatile is 
not plentiful here), dwindled away and died ; and I 
thus lost the opportunity of deciding whether hyber- 
nation takes place in the pupal or in the larval stage. 

The egg is bluntly oval in outline, flattened, and with 
a shallow depression on the upper surface, pitted very 
shallowly all over ; in colour pale yellowish, turning 
leaden at last. The newly hatched larva is noticeably 
slender, dusky olive in colour, with brownish head. 

For a time it remains of a dusky pale green, but 


before long dons a more decided dress, dark green 
above and pale green below. 

When about half-grown the ground colour is dull 
greyish-green, with a dull dark green (almost black- 
ish) fine dorsal line, a fine subdorsal line, and two 
stouter brownish-green lines just above the spiracles; 
belly of the ground colour, with central and two 
side-lines running through it, faint, except at the 
folds, where they show as strong purplish-brown 
dashes; at this stage it is altogether duller looking 
than when full-grown. 

When full-grown the length is barely three-quarters 
of an inch, the figure cylindrical, tapering slightly and 
gradually from the tenth segment to the head, which 
is as wide as the second segment; the skin smooth. 

The ground colour is a yellowish-green, that on the 
hinder segments beiug of a more tender tint than the 
rest ; the back from the fourth to the ninth segments, 
both inclusive, more or less suffused with dull brown- 
ish-pink; the head is green with brownish bristles; 
the second segment full green, the third dull green, 
the dorsal line of a deeper tint of whatever colour it 
passes through, pink through the pink, and greenish 
after the ninth segment, and thickening almost into a 
narrow diamond as it passes each fold ; the subdorsal 
line is pale, often edged above and below with a fine 
dark thread, the upper edging having a blackish dash 
at the beginning of each segment ; the rest of the 
side is divided by a faint pale line into two halves, of 
which the upper is of the same colour as the back, 
and the lower decidedly darker, and on its lower edge, 
at the beginning of each segment, is a black or 
blackish dash; the spiracles are reddish, and beneath 
them runs a pale reddish stripe ; the belly is of the 
ground colour. 

In some specimens the pink suffusion of the back is 
confined to the five folds between the segments 4 — 
9, and is softer in tint, and leaves the centre of 
these segments of a tender green ; the lines and 


dashes as above, but fainter. In others the pink may 
be called purplish ; all have the ventral prolegs tinged 
with purplish-brown, and with a dark dash down 
them. In some, again, a darker green takes the 
place of the pink dorsal suffusion. But in any case 
the full-srown larva has a soft delicate look. 

Many of my larvae spun among their food, others 
just under the soil, making a weak cocoon with a few 
silken threads. The pupa is short and cylindrical in 
figure, the eyes prominent, the abdomen short, the 
tail covered with the cast larva-skin ; the skin polished, 
the back dark brown, the wing-cases, antennas, aud 
belly of abdomen bronzy-green. (John Hellins, 21st 
February, 1871 ; E.M.M., June, 1871, VIII, 18.) 

Having had a further supply of the eggs of the 
second brood of moths, I think I have satisfied myself 
that the larvae from them do not feed up before 
hybernation, at least when kept outdoors, exposed to 
the weather. (John Hellins, 14th November, 1871 ; 
E.M.M., December, 1871, VIII, 166.) 


Plate CXLII, fig. 7. 

For the larvae from which the following description 
is taken I am indebted to the Rev. G. P. Harris, of 
Richmond, Yorkshire, from whom I received them on 
the 19th of July, 1871. Ifc seems to be but little 
known, common as the perfect insect is. 

Larva very slender, and about an inch and a quarter 
in length ; the head, which has the face slightly flat- 
tened, is of the same width as the second segment ; 
the body is cylindrical, tapering very slightly from 
the posterior segments to the head ; the segmental 
folds overlap each other, rendering the divisions dis- 
tinct ; on the anal segment are two short pointed 
projections ; the skin has a slightly puckered appear- 
ance; the ground colour is pale green, strongly tinged 

VOL. vm. 6 


with yellow, the segmental divisions being of the 
latter colour ; the head is uniformly pale green ; a 
dark green pulsating vessel forms the medio-dorsal 
line ; this is best seen in young specimens, as it ap- 
pears to become less conspicuous as the larva ap- 
proaches maturity ; there are no perceptible subdorsal 
lines, and the spiracular lines are very narrow and 
indistinct, faintly darker than the ground colour ; 
spiracles imperceptible ; ventrally, the ground colour 
is the same as on the dorsal surface, but has a con- 
spicuous central stripe of pinkish-brown ; the legs, 
prolegs, and anal points are also pinkish-brown. 

Feeds on sallow. 

The pupa is purplish and rather long. It is en- 
closed in a very frail cocoon, amongst frass, etc., at 
the bottom of the cage. 

The first larva spun on the 24th of July ; the moth 
appeared on the 21st of August. (George T. Porritt, 
February 3rd, 1872 ; Entom., March, 1872, VI, 49.) 


Plate CXLII, fig. 8. 

The eggs were laid in confinement, singly, on the 
leaves and stems of Alsine media (common chick- 
weed) the last week in July, 1874. 

The young caterpillars were hatched on the 9th of 
August, and moulted three times, about the 16th, 
23rd, and 30th of the same month. 

When at rest they lie extended on the stem of the 
food-plant, and when disturbed they assume the form 
of an Ionic volute. 

The body of the larva is nearly uniformly cylin- 
drical throughout its length, slightly increasing to- 
wards the extremities. The head and face are of a 
light yellowish-brown, marked with spots and short 
lines of a deeper shade. The colour of the back 
between the spiracles varies in different individuals 


from pale olive-green to reddish -brown. The whole 
of this space is of two shades, the lighter represented 
by very irregular lines, at one time confluent and 
then separate, with very irregular edges. There is a 
black patch in the middle of the seventh, eighth, and 
ninth segments ; this becomes less distinct as the 
caterpillar increases in size, and in some cases alto- 
gether disappears. The sides below the spiracles and 
the ventral space are of a lighter shade than the 
back, the line of demarcation being well defined. The 
whole of this portion bears a considerable resemblance 
to the back, as far as the markings are concerned, 
being made up of very irregular lines of alternate 
darker and lighter shades. The legs and claspers are 
of the lighter shade. At the sides of the junctures of 
the segments there are spots of a much darker colour. 
The spiracles are black. 

The caterpillars disappeared about the end of the 
first week in September, making a slight cocoon on 
the surface of the earth, and changing to a chrysalis 
of a light reddish-brown. 

In confinement it is double-brooded. During the 
second week of September, 1874, I had a few imagos 
emerge from the pupae of a brood which fed up about 
the middle of August. (P. H. Jennings, September, 
1874; Entom., October, 1874, VII, 230.) 


Plate OXLIII, fig. 1. 

The larva of Cidaria sagittata is rather short and 
stout, generally being in a hump-backed posture, but 
not curling in the front segments. The head is small, 
and sunk in the second segment ; the skin on the front 
and hind segments is wrinkled, whilst across each of 
the segments from the fifth to the tenth (both in- 
cluded) there runs a transverse elevated ridge, which 
on each side of the spiracular line meets a longitudinal 


ridge, and forms with it a lateral hump. The ground 
colour is a pale sulphur-green, along the region of the 
spiracles running into a rich pink, edged below with 
black, which blends into a broad lateral stripe of dark 
olive ; the belly is of the pale ground colour ; on the 
front segments are four dorsal stripes of a full green ; 
the transverse dorsal ridges are of a velvety olive- 
green, softening anteriorly into the pale ground colour 
with a tinge of pink, and becoming black at the sides. 
The hind segments are blackish-green on the back, 
and much suffused with pink. The spiracles are pink, 
six of them being enclosed in the black of the trans- 
verse ridges. 

The pupa, which is enclosed in a slight earthen 
cocoon, is remarkably short and stout, and much 
tinged with green. 

From what is here said of the larva of G. sagittata 
it will of course be seen that it does not at all follow 
the typical form of Gidaria larvse, which is, as Stain- 
ton's Manual has it, "elongate, slender;" in fact, it 
is more like the larva of Pelurga comitata, though 
far excelling it in singularity of form and beauty of 
colour; it is, indeed, a very striking and handsome 
creature, and the exquisite contrasts of its tints have 
inspired my friend Mr. Buckler even to excel himself 
in the magnificent figure he has taken of it. 

The discoverer of the larva is Mr. Alfred Fryer, of 
Chatteris, Cambridgeshire, who found it in some 
abundance in his garden last year, and gave a portion 
of his captures to Mr. W. Farren ; the latter at once 
guessed the species of the then unknown, but we did 
not like to say anything about it till the moths ap- 
peared ; and luckily this summer, about the middle 
of July, Mr. Farren bred one moth, and satisfactorily 
proved the correctness of his guess as to its species. 
The rest of the pupae from the larvse taken by Mr. 
Fryer in 1862 are partly, I fear, dead — partly, I hope, 
remaining over till 1864. However, this year (1863) he 
has again found it in his garden, and most kindly sent 


Mr. Buckler and myself a good supply, from indi- 
viduals of which figures and descriptions have been 

Mr. .Fryer tells me that the moths are plentiful in 
his garden during the first half of the month of July, 
and be finds that they lay their eggs (of a pellucid 
violet tint, changing to orange afterwards) in little 
bundles of four or five together, on the seed-vessels 
of Thalictrum aquilegi folium, and more rarely of T. 
flavuru ; the larvae, orange-coloured when they first 
appear, are hatched about the beginning of August, 
and have a habit of biting half through the stalks of 
their food-plant, and feeding on the leaves, which they 
have thus caused to become partly withered. They 
feed through the month of August, some of them being 
found far into September ; and, although they are not 
strictly gregarious, may be found on one plant to the 
number of a dozen or more, their presence being easily 
detected from their habit of feeding mentioned above. 
I believe it is not yet known what wild plant they feed 
on in their haunts in the fens, but I found that tbey 
would eat the old dry-looking leaves of Aquilegia 
vulgaris or columbine, though they would not touch 
the young and slender ones. (John Hellins ; Entom. 
Annual, 186^, p. 137.) 


Plate CXLIII, fig. 2. 

[We give under the next species, G. immanata, Mr. 
Hellins' comparative notes on the earlier stages of it 
and the present one.] 


Plate CXLIII, fig. 3. 

I send the following note, in the hope that some 
account of the investigation of the earlier stages 
of these species, on which during the past twelve 


months I have bestowed as much pains as untoward 
circumstances would permit, may not prove altogether 

To begin with C. russata. On the 11th of August, 
1863, I captured a female moth ; she at once laid 
some eggs, from which the larvae were hatched simul- 
taneously on the 23rd of the same month. I fed 
them on sallow and strawberry, and they attained the 
length of half an inch before hybernation. About 
the 15th of February, 1864, they began to feed 
again, and had all of them attained their full growth 
and were spun up between the 10th and the 23rd of 
April. During the latter month I also captured four 
or five larvae, and they too were spun up by the 26th. 
The moths (about fifteen in all), from both bred and 
captured larvae, emerged between the 5th and the 
18th of May. Meanwhile, on the 10th of May, I 
received from Mr. Batty, of Sheffield, one full-fed 
larva, which he had found on whortleberry; this spun 
up at once, and the moth appeared on the 27th of 
May. A few days later, during the first week of June, 
I obtained four or five batches of eggs from captured 
females. The larvae from the first of these were 
hatched on the 11th of June, and the rest in due 
order; they fed up fast on sallow and strawberry; 
the first began to spin on the 15th of July. The first 
moth appeared on the 5th of August, and the rest 
continued to emerge till the first week in September. 
I did not set out all of them, but there must have 
been several dozens. 

Now for the dates of G. immanata. I captured 
a female moth of the var. marmorata on the 12th 
of August, 1863 ; she at once laid eggs. Also in 
the latter part of August and the first week of 
September I received from Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson 
(who was then in Westmorland) and from Mr. Batty, 
of Sheffield, several batches of eggs laid by females 
of the dark type (they kindly enclosed the moths 
for my inspection) ; some of these eggs I kept for 


a time indoors and some outdoors, but not a single 
larva broke shell until the 5th of March, 1864, 
when the larvse of my marmorata began to make their 
appearance, at the rate of one or two a day. The 
eggs from Westmorland and Sheffield, having been 
deposited in chip boxes, could not so well be kept damp, 
and had nearly all dried up ; most fortunately, how- 
ever, in the first week of April a few larvae were 
hatched from them. The var. marmorata larvae fed 
away freely on wild strawberry, and occasionally on 
sallow, and began some of them to spin up on the 
27th of May (the day on which I bred my latest spe- 
cimen of the spriug moths of G. russata), and by the 
11th of June all were in pupae; the moths, to the 
number of nearly fifty, emerged between the 13th of 
June and the 4th of July. The type immanata larvae 
fed up more slowly, going into pupae from the 10th of 
June to about the same day in July, and the moths 
appearing from the 28th of June to quite the latter 
end of July, numbering about a dozen in all. 

The above dates call for no special remark, except 
that (as is the case at times when insects are reared 
in confinement) some of them are a little earlier than 
those rightly assigned for these species. 

I subjoin comparative descriptions of the eggs and 
larvae, the latter made from living specimens, and 
rendered more exact by the help of Mr. Buckler's 
pen and pencil. It was a great satisfaction that in 
the second week of July we were able to put full- 
grown larvaB of the two species side by side for com- 
parison, but I am sorry I was not able to make fuller 
notes of their changes after each moulting. 

The eggs of C. russata are of The eggs of C. immanata do not 

a flat oval shape, in colour a very differ from those of C. russata in 

pale ochreous, resembling that of shape, but in colour are yellowish, 

a pale tinted chip box. sometimes lightish red. 

The larvae of C. russata when The newly hatched larvse of 

first hatched are dirty whitish, and 0. immanata are yellow, nearly as 

somewhat translucent; after a yellow as the pollen of the flowers 

change of skin they become green- of the wild strawberry; this 



ish, and some individuals soon 
acquire a pink spiracular stripe, 
which, however, occasionally dis- 
appears again at the last moult. 

When full-fed, fine individuals 
(the hybernated larvae were finer 
than the summer broods, and re- 
sulted in finer moths) attain the 
length of an inch and a third ; in 
shape they are rather long and 
slender, the head round but flattish 
above, the anterior segments a 
good deal wrinkled, the spiracular 
region puckered and projecting, 
thus giving the whole larva rather 
a flattened appearance ; the two 
anal points acute. The ground 
colour varies from a yellowish- 
green to a light tint of full green ; 
the slender dark green dorsal line 
is bordered by the ground colour ; 
the subdorsal line is pale yellow 
or yellowish-white ; in some indi- 
viduals there is a broad purplish- 
red stripe extending from the 
second to the thirteenth segment, 
and including the ventral and anal 
pairs of legs ; in others this is of 
a rose-pink, and is much narrower, 
and extends from the third to the 
tenth segment ; others again have 
only a row of five or six irregular 
dashes of pink, whilst in a great 
many there is no pink whatever to 
be seen, but instead a slender 
stripe of a dark tint of the ground 
colour running along the spiracles; 
segmental folds yellow, dots and 
spiracles whitish, anal points some- 
times pink, sometimes green. 

seemed to me a very strong mark 
of distinction from C. russata, and 
was possessed by the larvae both 
of the type and the variety {mar- 
morata), which, in fact, at every 
period of growth were identical in 
colour and markings; after the 
first moult they become more 

When full grown they attain 
the length of about an inch and a 
quarter. In shape they much re- 
semble C. russata, only they seem 
more cylindrical, and the anal 
points are blunt; the ground 
colour is a dull, pale yellowish or 
whitish-green ; the dark green 
dorsal line is bordered by a space 
paler than the ground colour ; the 
subdorsal line is dirty whitish, 
and at the middle segmental folds, 
just above the spiracles, are six or 
seven pale oblique streaks ; the 
spiracular line is green, with a 
yellowish thread running through- 
out its length ; dots and spiracles 
white; segmental folds yellow, 
anal points sometimes very pale 
pink, sometimes pale green. Alto- 
gether the full-grown larva (al- 
though when first hatched so gaily 
dressed) is a much duller looking 
creature than that of C. russata. 

The pupa3, with their transparent cases, showing 
green when new, and growing darker as the moth 
approaches perfection, as well as the slightly formed 
cocoons, did not appear to differ. (John Hellins ; 
E.M.M., December, 1864, I, 165.) 



Plate CXLIII, fig. 4. 

Half a batch of eggs arrived from Mr. J. T. Car- 
rington, of York, on the 14th of May, 1872. They 
were laid singly and in clusters. 

The egg is of an oval shape, its surface pitted 
minutely or covered with a lace net-like surface or 
minutely honeycombed pattern. 

When first laid, on the 2nd to the 5th of May, they 
were white, as Mr. Carrington informed me, but on 
the 14th more of an amber-like shining appearance. 
On the 17th they became green, and on the 18th began 
to hatch. 

The young larvae were at first of an ochreous green 
colour, and were supplied with Galium mollugo and 
G. ajjarine, and they at once chose the latter plant. 
In three days they showed the internal vessels through 
the skin as a deep pinkish stripe. By the 31st of 
May they were three-eighths of an inch long, of a 
similar ground colour, but no longer transparent ; they 
began now to show much of their more adult mark- 
ings, the back being covered with dark brown mark- 
ings, with pale dorsal spots at the segmental divisions. 
(William Buckler, June, 1872; Note Book I, 174). 


Plate CXLIII, fig. 5. 

For some years Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson, of Preston, 
has endeavoured to find the larva of this rare and 
local species, until at length, in August, 1876, success 
attended his efforts, and in 1877 he again found the 
larva, and was lucky enough during the summer to 
prove the identity of those found the year before by 
breeding a specimen of the moth, as recorded by him 


in the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, vol. XIV, 
p. 67. In both years Mr. Hodgkinson sent me a 
couple of larvae and occasional supplies of the food- 
plant, though, from an unlucky accident during winter, 
I was unable to produce an imago from the first 
larva3, but have now been able to breed a specimen 
on the 9th of this present month of July, 1878. Mr. 
Hodgkinson's experience is somewhat different, as he 
tells me he has bred only ten out of quite a hundred 

With this species there are more than usual difficul- 
ties to contend with in rearing the larvae at any great 
distance from the growing food-plant, Impatiens noli- 
me-tangere, a native of woods bordering Windermere ; 
for this plant when gathered is quite unsuitable for 
transporting far, because if the least exposed to air it 
rapidly shrivels up, or when confined in a tin just 
as rapidly turns mouldy. Although the larva will, 
when pressed by hunger, feed on flowers and tender 
leaves of the common garden balsam, yet it will not 
thrive unless it has occasionally some of its natural 
food-plant, the seed-vessels of which it eats out 
apparently in preference, though it will also eat the 
leaves if they are in good condition. 

The habit of the larva, like that of many other 
geometers, is to be perfectly quiescent on the stem 
of the plant all day, looking rather shorter and 
stouter than when it wakes up at sunset and feeds, 
and continues to do so at intervals throughout the 
night, for then it stretches itself to the full as a very 
active looper, lively enough. 

When half an inch long the young larva is very 
slender, and often rests on a stem, with its head and 
next two segments bent backwards and anterior legs 
extended free. Its colour at this stage is a tender 
yellowish-green, more or less tinged with faint 
brownish-pink and with whitish subdorsal lines. After 
moulting and during further growth its semi-trans- 
parent skin indicates very well, day by day, on what 


it has nourished itself from one night to another, 
whether on the flowers or on the leaves of the sub- 
stituted food of balsam; for at one time the body 
beyond the thoracic segments would be light bluish- 
green, at another time pinkish-green, or much suffused 
with deep pink, and whenever it could return to its 
natural food would become of a more subdued tint 
of uniform yellowish-greenish. 

When fall-fed and about to change it contracts in 
length a little, and appears stouter, while it loses its 
lively colouring, grows torpid, holds on to any object, 
occasionally with the anterior legs only, and elevates 
the hinder legs a little, quite free. This curious posture 
I observed with the first two larvae of 1876, when the 
leaves of balsam were removed, and only a mixture of 
peat earth and leafy mould remained in their cage, 
and by the next morning (24th of September) both 
had buried themselves. But in the case of the two 
larvae I received on the 12th of October, 1877 (one 
much smaller than the other), I saw in the evening 
of the 15th that the largest had crept between two 
leaves of the balsam, and a few reticulated silk threads 
could just be detected around it, and by the 19th it 
had evidently made up, as the leaves then withering 
had become closely twisted together in somewhat of a 
cylindrical form. At this time the smaller larva, 
which previously had fed fairly well, appeared to be 
dead or dying, but on placing it in the sun for a few 
minutes it revived and seemed lively, but the next 
morning I saw it had not fed, and was again torpid, 
and, greatly to my surprise, already showed signs of 
contraction for pupation as it lay under a small bit of 
moss, although its previous length had not exceeded 
five-eighths of an inch, and there on the surface of 
the earth it became a naked pupa on the 29th, and by 
the end of November had died and shrivelled up. 

The full-grown larva measures seven-eighths of an 

inch in length, and is of a slender proportion, stoutest 

, at the ninth and tenth segments, from whence it tapers 


gradually forward, though most from the third segment 
to the head, which is very small and narrow, with the 
mouth extended in front ; it tapers also just a little 
towards the anal extremity; the second segment rather 
short, the others moderately well defined and tolerably 
plump, with the usual transverse wrinkles of the 
genus just visible ; the colour of the head is very pale 
watery-greenish, with a fleshy tinge, the thoracic seg- 
ments (generally paler than the rest of the body) are 
of a light warm pinkish yellow-green, and sometimes 
the three, or four hinder segments are similar, while 
those of the middle of the body are deeper coloured, 
of rather stronger green inclining a little to slaty or 
pinkish, or else much the same pinkish yellow-green 
throughout, the sides often deeply tinged with pink ; 
conspicuous on either side of the back is a whitish 
or faint yellowish-white opaque subdorsal stripe, 
the dorsal vessel of brownish-red continuous on the 
thoracic segments shows obscurely through the skin 
of the back as though deep below it, in some parts 
pulsating between whitish threads, but at the seg- 
mental divisions is strongly and clearly marked on the 
skin as a spear-point, or thick elongate spot of dark 
red, often prolonged on one or two of the hinder 
segments ; the anterior margin of the anal legs is 
pale primrose-yellow ; very fine brown trapezoidal dots 
are sometimes noticeable on the back; on the belly 
a central yellowish stripe ; the small flesh-coloured 
spiracles are situated on the fine tracheal whitish 
thread which shows distinctly through the clear skin ; 
this assimilates well with the internal pale fibres which 
show through the stem of its food-plant. 

The pupa is about seven-sixteenths of an inch in 
length, of a plump figure, the wing-covers rather pro- 
minently developed, their rays distinct, the abdomen 
convexly tapering to a pointed tip, which is furnished 
with two small converging spines ; the surface has 
a fine punctate roughness, and the colour is light 
ochreous-brown, rather shining. (William Buckler, 


12th July, 1878 ; E.M.M., August, 1878, XV, 61 ; 
and Note Book III, 132.) 


Plate CXLIV, fig. 3. 

As there is such a slight description of the larva of 
this species in Newman's British Moths, I think a 
more complete one will not be considered out of place 
in the pages of the Entomologist. I may say here, 
that although I have reared a large number of these 
larvae, I have never seen any of the "green-tinted" 
forms mentioned by Mr. Newman. This year I fed 
up two broods from eggs obtained from moths cap- 
tured last season, and from them the following notes 
were taken. 

The eggs were deposited about July, 1874, and 
began to hatch on the 3rd of April of the present 

The newly emerged larvae were dark greenish- 
brown, the sides yellowish-green, and the head dark 

They fed up well on bilberry, and on the 3rd of 
June, being full-grown, their description was taken 
as follows : 

Length about an inch and a quarter, and of average 
bulk in proportion. The head has the lobes rounded, 
but is rather flat in front, and is slightly broader than 
the second segment. Body tolerably, but rather un- 
evenly, cylindrical, tapering a little towards the head ; 
there is a slight lateral ridge, which on the third seg- 
ment takes the form of a distinct swelling. The skin 
has a tough appearance and is rather rough ; there 
are a few exceedingly minute hairs upon it ; the 
segments slightly overlap each other, rendering the 
divisions distinct. The ground colour varies in dif- 
ferent specimens from a median shade of brown to 
almost black, the great majority, however, being of 


the paler type. In these the head is of the same 
colour, with two median pale lines and a reddish- 
brown mark on the side of each lobe. On the dorsal 
surface is a series of large, pale, almost diamond- 
shaped whitish marks, each of these marks being 
more or less mottled with brown spots and streaks ; 
those on the posterior segments are the largest and 
most conspicuous; those on the others, indeed, vary 
very much both in size and distinctness, in some being 
confused and not so noticeable. The pale whitish sub- 
dorsal lines are distinct only on the second, third, and 
fourth segments, being a continuation of the two pale 
lines on the head ; the space between these pale lines 
is filled up by a short black stripe, and on the third 
segment (the swollen one) is a transverse black collar. 
Along the spiracular region, on the lateral ridge, are 
a few dull reddish-brown marks. The ventral surface 
and claspers are of the same shade as the ground of 
the dorsal surface, but there is a distinct, narrow, dark 
brown central line, rather broadly bordered with pale 
greyish-white. The legs are brown. 

The cocoon is very slight, and is formed by draw- 
ing together with silken threads a few old leaves. 

The pupa is about five-eighths of an inch in length ; 
the eye-, leg-, and wing-cases are prominent ; the anal 
tip pointed. The colour is pinkish-brown, the wing- 
cases streaked with dark brown ; the dorsal line is 
broad, dark brown ; behind the head it divides into 
a V-like mark ; there is also a dark brown ventral 
stripe from the base of the wing-cases to the anal 

The first imago emerged on the 21st of June, 1875. 
(George T. Porritt, 2nd November, 1875 ; Entom., 
January, 1876, IX, 13.) 



Plate CXLIV, fig. 4. 

I did not know the larva of this common species 
until the 16th of June, 1877, when, on the occasion 
of an excursion of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union 
to Sharlston, near Wakefield, I beat one out of rose. 
Since then I have found it easily enough. 

Length about five-sixths of an inch, and of average 
bulk in proportion ; head rather narrower than the 
second segment ; it has the lobes rounded, and when 
at rest appears to be notched on the crown ; the 
notch, however, is really on the second segment, being 
formed by an extension of the skin into two pro- 
minences above the top of the head, and thus forming 
the notch. Body of nearly uniform width, rounded 
above and below, but the two portions divided by a 
wrinkled lateral ridge ; the skin has also a wrinkled 
appearance, and the segments are very distinctly 

Head and the ground colour of the body uniformly 
bright pale green ; dorsal stripe composed of a double 
grey line ; subdorsal lines of the same colour, but 
more boldly defined ; a yellow margin extends along 
the lateral ridge forming the spiracular line, and the 
segmental divisions are also yellow. Ventral surface, 
legs, and prolegs bright pale green, the posterior 
segments yellower, and all the segmental divisions 

On the 25th of the same month the larva changed 
to a pupa amongst the leaves of its sprig of rose; 
this was about three-eighths of an inch long, the colour 
almost uniformly a dull green. From it an imago 
emerged on the 13th of the following month, July, 
1877. (George T. Porritt, 2nd April, 1880; E.M.M., 
May, 1880, XVI, 276.) .'.....■ 


Plate CXLV, fig. 2. 

In the middle of June, 1872, Mr. Greasley, of 
Wallasey, sent me a supply of full-grown larvse of 
this species, from which I took down notes as 
follows : 

Length about an inch, and rather stout in pro- 
portion. Head the same width as the second, but 
narrower than the third segment ; it has the lobes 
rounded, but the face is square and flat ; there is a 
slight notch on the crown. The body has the sides 
swollen into a puckered spiracular ridge, which gives 
it a rather flattened appearance, both from above and 
below ; the middle segments are the widest, and it 
tapers considerably towards the head anteriorly, and 
from the tenth segment posteriorly. The segments 
overlap, making the divisions distinct. Skin tough 
and puckered. The ground colour is pinkish-grey, 
tinged with pale slaty-blue ; the head is pinkish-grey, 
freckled with black. The medio-dorsal line is slaty- 
blue ; the subdorsal lines are pale ochreous-yellow, 
narrowly edged above and below with pale brown ; 
the swollen ridge along the spiracles is pinkish ; the 
spiracles and dorsal dots are black. The ground 
colour of the ventral surface is pale slaty-grey ; there 
is a pale ochreous medio-ventral stripe, throughout 
which extends a narrow pinkish line ; and between 
this medio-ventral stripe and the spiracular region is 
another pale ochreous stripe, edged on each side with 
black, the outer line being broader and more distinct 
than the inner ; the legs and claspers pinkish-grey. 

Feeds on Vicia, and probably a number of low 
plants and grasses. 

The imagos appeared from the 9th to the 31st of 
July, 1872. (George T. Porritt, 3rd March, 1873; 
Entom., April, 1873, VI, 361.) 



Plate CXLV, fig. 4. 

On the 6tli of August, 1875, I received eggs of this 
species from Mr. A. E. Hudd, of Clifton, near Bristol. 
They were globular, very glossy, with a serai- trans- 
lucent appearance ; pale straw-colour. Before hatch- 
ing, which event took place on the 20th of the same 
month, they changed to lead-colour, but still retained 
their glossy character. 

The newly emerged larvse were slate-colour, the 
head brown. They fed on the common white Dutch 
clover until autumn, when they hybernated, feeding 
again in the following spring. By the 8th of June 
they were nearly full-grown, when I took the following 
description : 

Length about an inch, and stout in proportion ; 
head rather narrower than the second segment, 
rounded at the sides, but the face somewhat flat ; 
there is a slight notch on the crown. Body roughly 
cylindrical, and of nearly uniform width throughout, 
tapering only a very little towards the anal extremity ; 
segmental divisions well marked, and each segment 
is also divided by transverse ribs into numerous sec- 
tions ; trapezoidal tubercles raised, each emitting a 
short hair. 

Ground colour of the dorsal area pale yellowish- 
grey with slight green tinge ; head very pale yellowish- 
brown, dotted and freckled with darker brown. 
Dorsal stripe conspicuous, dark green ; on each side 
of it is another much narrower, and consequently less 
distinct line, of the same colour ; there is also a rather 
indistinct double line above the spiracles. Spiracles 
rust- colour, each followed anteriorly by an intensely 
black dot ; tubercles also black. The ground of the 
ventral surface is much darker than the dorsal area, 
being a pinkish-brown shade; extending throughout 
its entire length is a broad stripe of still darker brown ; 



and within this stripe is a double central yellow line. 
On the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and twelfth 
segments is a double series of large black marks placed 
within the broad central stripe, but outside, and on 
each side the double yellow inner line ; prolegs brown 
on the outside, this colour being very noticeable on 
the anal claspers. 

The pupa is about five-eighths of an inch long, 
smooth, the thorax and abdominal segments polished, 
the wing-cases duller. It is uniform and cylindrical, 
but sharply attenuated towards the anal point. Colour 
almost uniformly bright brown ; the anal point, seg- 
mental divisions, and eye-cases darker. 

The first ima^o emerged on the 26th of July. 
(George T. Porritt, 4th June, 1878; E.M.M., July, 
1878, XV, 37.) 


Plate OXLV, fig. 5. 

A specimen of this insect which I captured on the 
Cheshire sand-hills in the early part of April last (1872) 
deposited a few eggs. They were in little clusters, 
each batch containing eight or ten eggs ; their colour 
was at first pale yellow, but soon changed to bright 
ochreous-brown. On the 30th of April they had 
become slaty-brown, and on the following day the 
young larvae emerged, their colour being orange, 
tinged with green. 

They fed readily on Galium saxatile, though G. verum 
is probably their natural food, as it grows abundantly 
on the sand-hills. 

On the 8th of June I took down a description as 
follows : 

Length about seven-eighths of an inch, slender, and 
of nearly uniform width throughout. Head a little 
broader than the second segment, and slightly notched 
on the crown ; the face rather flat. Body cylindrical 


and very slightly attenuated from the eleventh to the 
anal segment. Skin tough, along the sides and at the 
segmental divisions rather wrinkled. 

The ground colour is pale olive-green, at and on 
each side the segmental divisions pink ; the head is 
greenish-yellow, spotted with black. The dorsal line 
is dark green, and there is a still darker and much 
broader smoky stripe above the spiracles ; between 
this stripe and the dorsal line are two faint waved 
olive-brown lines. The ventral surface is bright 
yellowish-green, with paler central stripe ; the seg- 
mental divisions are sulphur-yellow. 

The larva3 went underground and changed to pupa 
about the middle of June ; the latter is about a 
quarter of an inch in length, smooth and shining ; 
very dark brown, with the abdominal divisions pale 
brown. (George T. Porritt, 17th October, 1872; 
E.M.M., January, 1873, IX, 197.) 

The following account has been drawn up from 
observation of many broods 5 kindly sent me from 
different localities during a period of several years, 
and touches on a few points which I do not remember 
to have seen noticed elsewhere. 

The moth is noted as being on the wing in every 
month from April to August, but I do not know that 
there are more than two broods in the year; for the 
first, May would be the month, early examples appear- 
ing in April, and late ones in June ; and in like 
manner the second brood would be seen in July and 
August. In 1868 I had a spring brood of larvse, all 
the moths from which appeared as a summer flight in 
July, except one specimen, which remained over the 
winter, and did not appear till the 20th of May, 1869. 

The egg and larva states of the two broods do not 
differ much in duration ; the larvse come to hatching 
from eight days to rather more than a fortnight after 
the eggs are laid, and feed up in the course of from 
four to six weeks, the speed of development in each 
case depending on the character of the season ; but. 


whereas the spring flight has been eight months in 
the pupa, having passed the winter in that state, the 
summer flight of moths comes out after little more 
than a fortnight's stay in the pupa. 

The food on which I have taken the larva at large is 
Galium verum, and I have reared it on G. saxatile, but 
it does not seem to care so much for G. mollugo. I 
have noticed that the moth is fond of resting on the 
coarse grasses which grow in its sandy habitat near 
the sea, where I have been accustomed to take it. 

The egg is rather a long oval in outline, the broader 
end being also thicker than the other ; it is flattened, 
but is deposited almost upright on its smaller end, in 
little clusters; the shell is polished, but not brightly, 
and is very faintly reticulated all over ; the colour is 
at first pale straw, soon becoming almost orange, and 
at last pale brownish-ochreous. 

The larva, when first hatched, is yellowish-ochreous 
in colour, with a faint, dusky, suffused stripe down 
the back, and a subdorsal line of the same, the head 
deeper yellow, the usual dots small and black ; when 
it begins to feed, the food shows dull green in the 
middle of the body, the rest remaining still ochreous, 
but it soon becomes pale greyish-green all over; when 
rather less than half-grown it is greyish-green above, 
with a dark green dorsal line, and a brownish stripe 
above the spiracles, all below being yellowish-green or 

When full-grown the length is about seven-eighths 
of an inch, the figure slender, uniform in bulk when 
viewed from above, but when viewed sideways taper- 
ing towards each extremity ; the head is nearly as 
wide as the second segment, somewhat flattened, but 
the lobes with rounded outline. The colour is variable 
above, the back being dull pink, lighter or deeper in 
tint, warm brown or olive-brown ; the dorsal line is 
dark brown or blackish-green, sometimes bordered 
with yellowish-pink ; the fine subdorsal line is 
yellowish on the second, third, eleventh, twelfth, 


and thirteenth segments, on the rest being of a paler 
tint of the ground colour ; the space between the sub- 
dorsal line and the spiracles is filled up with two dark 
stripes of even width, sometimes separated by a very 
fine pale thread, the upper stripe being dull purplish- 
pink, pinkish-brown, or olive-brown, the lower dull 
blackish-green, or almost dull black ; just on the 
lower edge of this dark stripe come the black 
spiracles ; all the under surface is pale yellow, palest 
immediately below the spiracles, and with a paler line 
through the middle of the belly; the head is yellowish 
freckled with brown, the subdorsal lines showing on 
it free of freckles ; the anal and ventral legs tinged 
with dull pink or purplish-pink, the anterior legs 
more yellowish ; the usual dots small and black, and 
bearing fine black bristles. I have notes of one larva 
in which the yellow lines on the back and sides were 
so much widened, and the darker lines so narrowed, 
that the general effect was as if the back were coloured 
greenish-yellow; another, a brown variety, had the 
subdorsal line bordered above by a dark brown dash 
at the beginning of each segment, thus presenting the 
appearance of a dorsal pattern. 

The cocoon is very slight but regular in outline, 
formed just under the surface of the sandy soil, and 
attached to a leaf or stem. 

The pupa is barely one-third of an inch in length, 
cylindrical and full, stoutish about the thorax, and 
with the abdomen tapering off rather rapidly ; the 
eye-cases are prominent ; the anal tip ends in a 
conical spike, furnished with two sharp spines set 
like the sides of a V ; the colour is a rich, dark, glossy 
brown, the abdominal rings paler, with a reddish 
tinge. (John Hellins, 10th March and 14th May, 
1874; E.M.M., April, 1874, X, 255; and E.M.M., 
June, 1874, XI, 16.) 


Plate CXLVI, fig. 1. 

For eggs of this species I am indebted to Mr. 
Edwin Birchall and Mr. George T. Porritt, who sent 
me a good supply in August, 1871. 

These eggs were kept out of doors through the 
winter, and the larvae began to hatch towards the end 
of April, 1872, — that is to say, some of them did so ; 
a great many mnst have died in the egg 9 and many 
more soon after hatching, for in the first week of 
May I found but two alive. The wintry time in April, 
succeeding the more open weather of the preceding 
months, was, I believe, the canse of this mortality, and 
before long killed also one of the two survivors ; and 
yet it has so often happened of late that I have had 
to carry on my investigations with a single larva out 
of a numerous brood, that perhaps I ought not to 
blame the weather so much as some fault of my own ; 
possibly my bungling may be one link in the chain 
of causes which work together in the natural selec- 
tion of the individuals whose looks and doings get 
chronicled in this Magazine. 

My one larva of C. imbutata grew slowly, feeding 
on Vaccinium vitis-idxa at first, and afterwards on 
V. oxycoccos, kindly sent me by Mr. Birks, until the 
16th of June, when it spun up ; the moth appeared on 
the 10th of July. 

The egg is not remarkable ; it is of an obtuse 
oblong shape, flattened, with scarcely any gloss on 
the shell, which is neither reticulated nor pitted ; the 
colour at first is pale yellow, afterwards deeper yellow, 
and not changing much again when the larva is near 

The young larva is dull yellowish or greenish, with 
a pinkish head, and with fine dorsal and broader sub- 
dorsal brownish Hues ; as it grows it becomes of a 


tender greenish-yellow, and the lines more reddish, 
assimilating in tints to the young leaves of the food- 
plant, with their reddened edges and tips; after- 
wards, by degrees, the whole back of the larva 
becomes brownish, leaving the under side still yel- 

The length of the full-grown larva is not quite five- 
eighths of an inch, the figure somewhat stoutish, 
uniform in bulk throughout, but its habit of holding 
the head a little downwards and folding all the an- 
terior legs close up to it gives a clubbed appearance 
to the thoracic segments when seen sideways, the 
back of those segments being arched or humped up ; 
the colour all over the back to near the spiracles is of 
a rather deep brownish-red, with a very fine dorsal and 
subdorsal line of blackish-red ; along the spiracular 
region is a broad, brilliant yellow stripe, separated on 
the thoracic segments from the red above by a black 
edging, but this only appears faintly at the segmental 
folds for the rest of its length ; this broad yellow 
stripe is blotched at the folds between segments 6 
to 10 with beautifully softened blush-like spots of red, 
the black spiracles standing in the clear yellow spaces; 
below this comes a line of blackish-green, very fine on 
the thoracic segments, undulating in its course, and 
thickening at the folds, becoming gradually tinged 
with red, till at the tenth segment it is a red stripe ; 
the belly is pale greenish-yellow with a central paler 
line, bordered by darker lines ; the head is dull 
pinkish-red on the top, paler than the colour of the 
back, becoming paler still near the mouth ; the ventral 
legs are pinkish-red ; the anal legs are brownish-red 
like the back, with a yellow line down them ; the 
usual dots are small in size, yellow, ringed with 

From the look of the young larvaB I was led to 
believe that, had I reared more than one example, I 
should have seen some variety of colouring. 

When I found my larva ready to change, I put it 


into a large chip box with about half an inch of fine 
loose soil, and it spun its cocoon under this, attaching 
it to the bottom of the box. The cocoon is very weak, 
being formed of particles of soil spun together with 
not much silk. 

The pupa is slender in form, three-eighths of an 
inch in length, the head-piece distinctly shaped, the 
antenna-cases ending in a little bifid projecting knob 
or spike, the skin shining ; the colour of the head and 
wing-case was probably somewhat olive-brown when 
the insect was within, the abdomen of a more reddish- 

The imago I bred was rather small, but most beau- 
tifully coloured. (John Hellins, 8th August, 1872 ; 
E.M.M., September, 1872, IX, 92.) 


Plate CXLVI, fig. 3. 

For our knowledge of the early stages of this 
species we have to thank Mr. T. Brown, of Cam- 
bridge, who has found the larvse feeding on Sisym- 
brium sophia, in the locality where he had been accus- 
tomed to take the moth. 

The larvse, however, which I have had this summer, 
whether bred or captured, throve equally well on 
Erysimum cheiranthoides, seeds of which had been 
sent me in mistake for those of S. sopliia. 

Mr. Brown sent me eggs on the 18th and 25th of 
June, and the larvaa appeared soon after, and fed up 
in about a month, all of them having gone to earth by 
the 1st of August. 

On the 3rd of August Mr. Brown sent me some 
larvae which he had just captured in their locality, 
and some of these continued feeding for nearly a fort- 
night longer. 

The larva, when full-grown, is nearly an inch long, 


rather slender, flattened beneath, of uniform bulk 
throughout ; the head full large, and rounded. 

The colour is very variable ; the larva? reared on 
Erysimum cheiranthoides were mostly paler than the 
captured ones sent me by Mr. Brown, and as these 
did not vary much among themselves, we have taken 
their colouring and markings to form 

Var. 1. Ground colour dull olive-green all over 
except the spiracular region, which is pale yellow; 
very fine dorsal line of darker tint of the ground 
colour ; sometimes there is a similar line on either 
side of it, and sometimes again these appear only as 
a pair of olive-brown or purplish wedge-shaped dashes 
just before each segmental fold; subdorsal line 
greenish-grey with darker edgings ; the spiracles 
black, and just above and behind them, in the yellow 
spiracular stripe, are suffused blotches of the colour 
of the dorsal wedges. 

Var. 2. Ground colour of a fresher, more yellowish 
green ; dorsal region full green ; spiracular region 
yellowish, and the blotches in it of a darker purplish 
tint than in var. 1, and more clearly defined. 

Var. 3. Ground colour greenish-white ; three very 
fine purplish-brown or blackish lines down the back, 
of which the central one becomes wider and darker 
just before each segmental fold, and the other two 
across the fold ; sometimes these lines are interrupted, 
appearing only in the thickened parts ; sometimes 
again they are all united by a transverse band just 
before the segmental fold ; the subdorsal line paler 
than the ground, but edged below with the dark 
colour ; the spiracular region not differing from the 
rest of the ground colour, with its wedge-shaped 
blotches, not only above the spiracles, but also with 
similar ones below them, in some specimens the 
spiracular stripe being itself interrupted by these 
pairs of upper and under blotches becoming partially 
united ; the anal flap and the anal pair of legs dark 
blackish-green or purplish-brown. 


This last variety caught the eye, when upon its 
food, readily enough, but the other two were hard to 
distinguish from the seed-pods of the mustard plants. 
(John Hellins, 16th September, 1867; E.M.M., 
October, 1867, IV, 115.) 

Larvae of Lithostege nivearia. — My specimens were 
full-fed and went underground on the 23rd of July ; 
examined on the 28th I found they had buried them- 
selves to the depth of two inches, as far as the vessel 
in which they were confined would allow, and had 
become shorter and stouter, the colour having changed 
and assumed a regularly annulated appearance. On 
the 1 st of August I turned out and examined the earth, 
being anxious to describe the pupa. I found they had 
undergone their transformation; each had formed a 
neat little cell in the earth, but without any admixture, 
so far as I could perceive, of silk ; the head-case of 
the pupa forms a small and slightly projecting knob ; 
the case of the prothorax, or perhaps tippets, is also 
knob-like on the back ; the wing-cases are of medium 
length, and the wing-rays are rather strongly marked ; 
the surface is rather deeply and confluently punctured, 
giving the pupa a dull appearance, which I mention in 
contradistinction to the glabrous exterior so commonly 
observable in pupa3; and there is a deep medio-dorsal 
puncture on the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth seg- 
ments, and each of these deep punctures is surrounded 
by a glabrous space ; the abdomen terminates in two 
very acute and moderately long divaricating spines. 
The colour of the wing-cases is dull greenish and 
semi-transparent, and that of other parts dull pale 
brown. (Edward Newman ; Entom., September, 
1871, V, 379.) 


Plate CXLVII, fig. 4. 

[See under the next species (0. obliquaria) for Mr. 
Buckler's comparative descriptions of the larvae of 
the two British species of Chesias. ] 

Chhsias obliquaria. 
Plate CXLV1, fig. 5. 

Comparative Descriptions of the Larvx of Chesias 
spartiata and C. obliquaria. — It is a great pleasure to 
me to acknowledge my numerous obligations to Mr. 
W. H. Harwood, of Colchester, and in this instance 
especially for all the trouble he has so kindly and re- 
peatedly taken to furnish me with larva? of our two 
British species of Chesias. For three seasons in suc- 
cession I have thus taxed his patience, because I did 
not like to speak before I had made quite sure of the 
distinctive characters of these larvae, and had satisfied 
myself still further by breeding the moths. 

From eggs of C. spartiata forwarded by me to Mr. 
Hellins in October, 1868, the larvae were hatched in 
February, 1869, earlier probably than is natural to the 
species on account of their not being exposed to the 
cold, but the imago was not bred till the 9th of 
October; the time for finding the larvae at large 
appears to be the month of May or thereabouts, and 
so far as my experience goes, September and October 
are the months for the moth ; there is no sign of an 
earlier brood. 

Of the egg of C. obliquaria I cannot speak ; but the 
larvae were sent me by the Rev. E. N. Bloom field and 
Mr. Harwood on the 20th of July, and again on the 
6th and 26th of September, 1869; the perfect insects 
appearing this year (1870), the earlier batch between 


the 17th and the 21st of May, and the later between 
the 16th and the 20th of June ; with this species also, 
therefore, it appears there is one brood in the year, 
variable in the period of its flight. 

I now offer descriptions of the full-grown larvae, 
giving first the points in which they are both alike, 
and afterwards those in which they differ. 

Both species, then, have the same food-plant, Spar- 
Hum scoparium, and are alike in form ; when full- 
grown they are about an inch or a trifle more in 
length, uniformly cylindrical and slender ; the last 
two segments tapering a little to the end of the anal 
flap ; when they are stretched out at full length in 
repose the head is bent down and the legs drawn up 
towards it, an attitude which gives rather a swollen 
look to the anterior extremity ; the ventral and anal 
prolegs are moderately well developed. 

C. spartiata is generally of a deep full green on the 
back, sometimes rather yellower-green on the sides ; 
it has a dorsal line of much darker green between two 
lines of paler green than the ground colour ; the sub- 
dorsal broad stripe is as dark as the dorsal line, and is 
edged above and below with a fine thread of much paler 
green ; the spiracular region is puffed ; the spiracles 
are red, faintly outlined with black ; the inflated sub- 
spiracular stripe is either primrose-yellow or white, 
melting a little above into the green ; the anal flap is 
often rather a deeper green than the ground colour ; 
the ordinary minute tubercular dots are in the usual 
position, each bearing a short brown bristle; the 
ventral surface is green with three pale stripes of 
whitish-green, the central one being the widest. A 
yellow variety of this larva often occurs, exhibiting 
more or less distinctly the details above described ; 
it is generally found feeding on the broom blossoms, 
to which it assimilates well. 

0. obliquaria is either of a full green or inclining to 
bluish-green in the ground colour ; the dorsal line of 
much darker green is edged with a line of very bluish- 


green much paler than the ground colour ; the sub- 
dorsal line is thin, yellow or greenish-white, very finely 
edged above sometimes, and always below with a line 
of dark green, — this pale subdorsal line is, by aid of a 
lens, seen to be composed of numerous little transverse 
bars or streaks, with the slightest interval of the 
ground colour between them ; the rather broad in- 
flated subspiracular stripe is pure white or yellowish- 
white ; between the subdorsal line and the subspira- 
cular stripe there is a very thin and fine tortuous line 
of very bluish-green, paler than the ground colour ; its 
course defines the boundary of the puffed region above 
the spiracles, and these last are pale yellow, faintly 
outlined with black ; the head is generally bluish- 
green ; the tubercular dots are black, each bear- 
ing a short bristle, but they are very minute ; the 
segmental folds are yellowish; two very short anal 
points sometimes occur, but generally there is only a 
slight swelling on each side below the flap, the point 
of which shuts down between them. 

The ventral surface is of the green ground colour, 
with a central paler ochreous-greenish stripe between 
two lines that are composed of little transverse 
streaks, similar to those of the subdorsal line before 
described. (William Buckler, 17th November, 1870; 
E.M.M., April, 1871, VII, 260.) 


Plate CXLVI, fig. 6. 

On the 28th and 30th of May last (1867) I had the 
pleasure to receive six larva3 of Tanagra chxrophyllata 
obtained from the flowers of earth-nut (Bunium flexu- 
osum) by Mr. Howard Vaughan, who has my sincere 
thanks for making two excursions in quest of the larvae 
to a locality where the perfect insects were known to 

It is, therefore, to this gentleman that we are in- 


debted not only for a knowledge of the larva, which 
hitherto has been most inaccurately described, but 
also for that of its food-plant, which, being one of the 
Umbelliferx, had doubtless been mistaken for Ch&ro~ 
phyllum ; but experience proved that chervil could not 
be the proper food, as young larvae obtained from 
eggs refused it and starved. 

This larva, when full-grown, is nearly three- 
quarters of an inch in length, cylindrical, stout in 
proportion, and about equally thick throughout, 
rather shining, and with distinct lines as follows : 

Ground colour of the back green or bluish-green, 
becoming on the sides gradually paler towards the 
spiracular region. The dorsal line is darker green, 
and on the anal segment becoming dark red and 
thicker, forming a very conspicuous mark. The 
subdorsal stripe of a darker green than the ground 
colour, and running between two fine lines of pale 
whitish-green, which in some individuals are also 
seen to be very finely edged externally with darker 

The spiracles are red, and below them the green 
fades into a whitish stripe, and it is forcibly con- 
trasted beneath by a darker tint of the green of the 
back, softening gradually into a paler green on the 
ventral surface, where there are three longitudinal 
whitish stripes, the middle one being the widest. 

The larvas had all retired to earth by the 8th of 
June, and the moths began to appear on the 27th, 
and the whole six were out by the 29th of the 
month. (William Buckler; E.M.M., September, 
1867, IV, 85.) 

Sterrha sacraria. 

Vol. VII, Plate CXXIII, fig. 3. 

In the September number of the Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine, at p. 92, Mr. R. McLachlan re- 


cords the capture of a female of this species near 
Worthing on the afternoon of the 19th of August. 
That same day she laid seven eggs, which were forth- 
with entrusted to me, and I am happy to say I can 
now give a good account of six of them, one unfortu- 
nately having been crushed in the quill during its 

The larvae were hatched on the 29th of August, 
reached full growth and spun up between the 20th 
and 30th of September, and the six pupae at the 
present date look lively and well. 

The shape of the egg is singular — a very long 
narrow oval, with the under side flattened, and, when 
seen under an inch lens, it appears to be finely dotted 
all over, as well as ornamented with rows of hexa- 
gonal network ; its colour when first laid is a pale 
greenish -yellow, changing in a day or two to a bright 
coral-red, and from that to a smoky-grey a few hours 
before the escape of the larva. 

The larva on its first appearance is translucent and 
whitish, with a broad (that is broad in comparison to 
the bulk of the tiny creature) purplish-red lateral 
stripe, as pretty a youngling as I ever made the 
acquaintance of in my experience of lepidopterous 

At the end of a week the length was about five- 
sixteenths of an inch ; the white colour changed to a 
soft grey, the lateral stripe brownish-red, and com- 
paratively narrower than at first. 

After another week the length was about nine- 
sixteenths of an inch, the lateral stripe gone, and the 
colour either a pale green or greenish-brown on the 
back, with the belly grey. 

About the middle of the third week the last change 
of skin took place, and the larva began to put on its 
mature appearance. 

When full-grown the length is a full inch. The 
shape is slender, cylindrical, tapering very gradually 
towards the head; the skin smooth with a few bristles, 


chiefly on the anterior and posterior segments ; the 
head rather flat, and widish. 

When at rest the larva is not quite straight, the 
back being slightly raised ; when disturbed it curls up 
spirally (like an Acidalia), forming about a coil and 
a half. 

The colour on the back is either a full green or a 
blue-green, velvety, with the posterior segments more 
yellowish-green, the belly a delicate whitish-green, 
and the segmental folds yellow. The head is pale 
brownish-red ; on either lobe a pale stripe bordered 
above with brighter red, and below with darker 
brown ; the very fine dorsal line, paler than the 
ground, is bordered throughout more or less distinctly 
with lines of either a bright rust or deep red colour, 
which at each of the folds after the fifth segment 
expand into a V, with the apex pointing forward, and 
enclose a three-cornered yellowish-white spot ; the 
dorsal line becomes more distinct and its borders of a 
stronger red after the eighth segment ; the anal flap 
and ventral legs are tinged with purplish -pink ; there 
are two very fine faint brownish-green subdorsal lines, 
which, in one or two of the larvae, were on the 
anterior segments united in one strong brownish-red 
line, running back from the dark stripe on the lobe of 
the head; the region of the spiracles yellowish-green, 
becoming a more decided yellow stripe in the second, 
third, and fourth, and the eleventh, twelfth, and thir- 
teenth segments, and running down the anal pair of 
legs ; the spiracles reddish. 

From this account it will be seen that this larva 
varies greatly during its growth, the first and last 
stages being the most beautiful. 

The pupa in shape is long, slender, and cylindrical, 
and very flexible ; the head-case projecting and much 
smaller than the body, which is tolerably uniform in 
thickness ; the wing-cases distinct, widely separated 
from each other, and reaching halfway between the 
head and tail ; the antenna-cases reaching one or two 


segments further. Colour a pale yellowish-olive, 
head and wing-cases pale olive-green, finely outlined 
with black ; the segmental folds and dots along the 
side of the abdomen are dark also ; the tip of tbe 
anal segment and the short blunt spike horny and 

Enclosed in an open fine network of dirty yellow 
silk, either between the stems of the food-plant or 
against the sides or cover of the casre. 

The food chosen was Polygonum aviculare, and the 
rate of growth plainly shows that it was eaten freely ; 
no doubt there are other plants equally acceptable, 
and Herr Carl Plotz, in one of his beautiful drawings, 
had figured this larva on a species of chamomile. 

At the end of a fortnight the pupae began to become 
more suffused all over with a pale brownish tint, and 
on the 15th of October I noticed one which had 
changed to a smoky-black, the edges of the wing-cases 
showing a rich red stripe, and in the evening the moth 
emerged ; since then two more have made their ap- 
pearance [October 18th], and by the end of this week 
I expect the other three will have followed their ex- 

The fore-wings are variable in tint — always very 
delicate and pretty ; and I notice that the moth likes 
to rest with its wings roofed together at a very acute 
angle, after the manner of Gilix spinula.* (John 
Hellins, October 4th and 18th, 1865; E.M.M., 
November, 1865,' II, 134, 135 ; and Erratum at 
p. 166.) 

I regret to say that I have not succeeded at 
all satisfactorily in my attempt at rearing Sterrha 
sacraria ; and I am the more sorry as I am not able 
fully to account for the causes of my failure. I took 
in all six perfect insects in August — two females and 
four males, and I obtained twenty-six ova. Eight of 

* The moths were described in the * Transactions of the Entomolo- 
gical Society of London,' 3rd series, vol. ii, pp. 45 i, 455, plate xxiii, 
R. McLachlan. 



these went to the Rev. John Hellins, one of the larvae 
disappeared when very young, and the other seven- 
teen progressed very satisfactorily until they were 
full-fed ; up to this time they looked perfectly well 
and healthy. Two of them spun np and changed to 
fine healthy-looking pupge, in which state they now 
are ; about eight more spun up and died in the web, 
and the others died, without any apparent reason, 
without spinning. 

I rather fear the food (Polygonum aviculare) which 
I gave them on Friday, October 4th, was touched with 
frost, as we had a very sharp frost on the nights of 
the 3rd and 4th ; but whether that can have been 
enough to kill them I hardly know. The plants did 
not then exhibit any symptoms of being frost-bitten, 
or, indeed, at all differ outwardly from the food we 
were supplying regularly ; but the frost then was 
undoubtedly sharp, and many plants felt it. 

My gardener, who has charge of my larvae when I 
am from home, is a very careful hand, and an excellent 
practical entomologist. (John T. D. Llewelyn. 20th 
October, 1867; E.M.M., December, 1867, IV, 153.) 

I am sorry that I can report no better success than 
Mr. Llewelyn with this species. The larvae he so gene- 
rously sent me fed up well, and all began to spin; 
two died without becoming pupae, while the rest com- 
pleted the change ; and, had they behaved as satis- 
factorily as the famous half-dozen in 1865, they would 
have appeared in the perfect state during the latter 
half of October, but up to this date not an imago has 
emerged. I have examined two of my cocoons, and 
found dead pupae in them ; most likely there is nothing 
better in the rest, but with a lingering, desperate hope 
I am keeping them on in a room with a fire, un- 
willing to destroy the least chance there may yet exist 
of seeing a moth. 

Mr. Llewelyn's brood were hatched two or three 
days earlier in August than the 1865 brood ; but on 
reference to a daily register of the temperature here 


in Exeter I find they did not enjoy such a favourable 
time for their development. Throughout September 
and October, 1865, the thermometer stood several 
degrees higher than in the same months of this year, 
with the exception of one frosty night in October ; 
and as 8. sacraria is believed to have its head-quarters 
in climates much warmer than our own, we may suppose 
that the greater success of the former brood is thus 
accounted for. At the same time, if we allow that 
cold is so fatal to S. sacraria, we are met by the 
question, How then can it establish itself at all in this 
country ? For we can scarcely suppose that the 
specimens taken year by year are fresh immigrants, or 
the offspring of immigrants which arrived in time to 
secure sufficient warm weather for the perfecting of 
their broods. 

However, one point has been fairly settled this year, 
and that is a more correct description of the larvae. 
From notes taken by Mr. Llewelyn and myself it 
seems that nearly every individual of the whole brood 
of twenty-five presented some little peculiarity of its 
own, but that all might be fairly ranged under three 
main varieties. 

Var. 1. I have taken for the type the form which 
has all the characteristic markings, yet without any 
exaggeration in the colouring. Ground colour on the 
back a soft delicate grey, on the belly a greenish-white ; 
dorsal line paler than the ground, very finely but dis- 
tinctly edged with blackish threads, which become 
stronger on segments 10 to 12; the subdorsal line 
also pale with fine edgings, and on segments 1 to 
5 having a strong dark streak immediately below it, 
continued backwards as a dark thread. Sometimes 
the edgings of the lines are not so dark, but have a 
reddish tint; sometimes again the dorsal line is not of 
uniform width, but at the fold from segments 5 to 10 
opens into a small white dot, immediately followed by a 
small black dot, which thus interrupts the line. 

Yar. 2. On one side of the type comes the variety 


described in 1865, the ground colour of which is 
decidedly green, and the edgings of the lines red ; 
some are blue-green, some full green, some bright 
green ; and the edgings are dark red, bright rust-red, 
or pinkish. As before, the dorsal line varies in dif- 
ferent specimens in being either of uniform width or 
else widened at the folds and interrupted. 

Var. 3. On the other side of the type comes a 
plainer variety, in which the ground is more or less 
ochreous, sometimes becoming as warm in tint as a 
piece of clean fresh-cut cork; the belly sometimes 
whitish, sometimes paler ochreous than the back ; the 
pale dorsal line still varying as before in width, and 
although occasionally darkly margined, yet more gene- 
rally in this variety not so distinctly defined; in one 
or two specimens the lines were scarcely visible. 

I noticed that the pupse were darker than those of 
1865, perhaps because they were sickly. (John 
Hellins, 7th December, 1867 ; E.M.M., January, 1868, 
IV, 179, and Erratum, E.M.M., February, 1868, IV, 



The following list of parasites, bred from the larvae 
or pupae of the species included in the present volume, 
has been kindly prepared by Mr. Gr. C. Bignell, F.E.S. 
— G. T. P. 


Emmelcsia alchemil- 

,, decoloratu 

Eupithecia venosata 
,, linariata 

,, pulchellata 







nanata ... 



By whom bred. 

Triclistus lativentris Thorns. W.H.B. Fletcher 

Apanteles sericeus Nees 

Microgaster tibialis Nees 

Platylabus thedenii Holmg.... 

Meteorus luridus Ruthe 

Pimpla nucum Ratz 

Schizoloma amicta Fab 

Ichneumon p>ulchellatus ( 

Bridgra. \ 

Platylabus tricingulatus C 

Grav. \ 

Apanteles sericeus Nees 

Paniscus virgatus Fourc 

Microplitis tuber culiferaW&m . 
Microplitis tuber cidif era Wsm . 
Limner ia submarginata 

Anomalon clandestinum Grav. 

Paniscus testaceus Grav 

Paniscus tarsatus Brischk. ,.. 

Limneria rufipes Grav 

*Mesochorus semirvfus Holm.' 
Mesoleptus testaceus Fab 

Paniscus tarsatus Brischk. ] 

Sagaritis incisa Bridgrrr. ... < 

Microgaster tibialis Nees 

Campoplex juvenilis 

Platylabus pedatorius Fab. < 

Limneria ruficincta Grav 

Casinaria morionella Holm... 

Meteorus caligatus Hal. 

Paniscus tarsatus Brischk. 
Campoplex pugillator L. .. 
Apanteles lateralis Hal 


J. Hellins. 

W. H. Harwood. 

G. Elisha. 

W. J. Cross. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

J. E. Fletcher. 

G. C. Bignell. 

J. E. Robson. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. G. Bignell. 

E. Parfitt. 

H. D'Orville. 

W.H. B.Fletcher 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

T. A. Chapman, 
W.H.B. Fletcher- 
Mrs. F. Norgate 

J. H. Wood. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. F. Mathew. 
Mrs. F. Norgate 

G. C. Bignell. 
W.H. B.Fletcher 

G. C. Bignell. 

B. A. Bower. 
W.H.B. Fletcher 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

H. D'Orville. 

* Hyperparasite on Anomalon clandestinum. 




Eupithecia lariciata. . . 

,, abbreviata 
„ togata 



Lobophora lobulata . 

Thera variata 

Ypsipetes rtiberaria., 

Melanippehastata ... 
,, montanata , 

„ galiata . 

Anticlea rubidata. 


Cidaria sagittata. . . 
russata . . . 
prunata ... 
fulvata ... 

Pelurga comitata... 

Chesias spartiata.. 
„ obliquaria 

Agrypon flaveolatum Grav. \ 

Paniscus tarsatus Brischk. ... 
Paniscus tarsatus Brischk. ... 

Campoplex pugillator L 

Nemeritis cremastoloides 

Ichneumon albicinctus Grav... 

Limneria unicincta Grav 

Apanteles popularis Hal 

Microgaster calce«tus JHal. ... 

Ichneumon albicinctus Grnv... 

Pimpla instigator Fab 

Glypta parvicaudata ( 

Bridgm. ( 
Campoplex lapponicus Holm. 
Platylabus dimidiatus Grav... 
Mesochorus fuscicornis 

Rhogas circumscriptus Nees... 

Apanteles nothus Keinh 

Lissonota brachy centra Grav. 

Apanteles nothus Reinh. ... < 

Apanteles nothus Rei n h 

Meteorus deceptor Wesm 

Platylabus transversu sBridgm. 
Limneria interrupta Holm. ... 

Zele chlorophthalma Nees 

Apanteles immunis Hal 

,, juniperata Bou 

Limneria carbonaria Brischk. 

Apanteles nothus Reinh 

Campoplex auriculatus ( 

Foerst. ( 

Microplitistuberculifera Wsm 

MicroplitistuberculiferaW sm 

By whom bred. 

T. A. Chapman. 

E. A. Hall. 

J. HelJins. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. C. BignelJ. 

Mis. Hutchinson. 

T. A. Chapman. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 
W.H. B.Fletcher 
T. A. Chapman. 
W.H. B.Fletcher. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C Bignell. 
C. G. Barrett. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
W. J. Cross. 
G. C. Bignell. 
B. A. Bower. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
B A. Bower. 

C. Fenn. 
G. F. Mathew. 
W. B. Smith. 


Abbreviata, Eupitbecia 
Absynthiata, Eupitbecia 
Affinitata, Emmelesia . 
Albulata, Emmelesia . 
Alcbemillata, Emmelesia 
Assimilata, Eupitbecia 

Badiata, Anticlea . 
Bilineata, Camptogramma 
Bipunctaria, Eubolia . 
Blandiata, Emmelesia . 

Campanulata, Eupitbecia 
Castigata, Eupitbecia . 
Centaureata, Eupitbecia 
Chaavophyllata, Odezia 
Comitata, Pelurga 
Coniferata, Tbera 
Consign ata, Eupitbecia 

Decolorata, Emmelesia 
Denotata, Eupitbecia . 

Expallidata, Eupitbecia 
Extensaria, Eupitbecia 






\, 117 







33, 117 

. 117 

. 39 

Firmaria, Tbera ... 63 
Fluviata, Camptogramma . 72 
Fraxinata, Eupitbecia . . 32 
Fulvata, Cidaria . . 95, 118 


Galiata, Melanippe . . 118 

Hastata, Melanippe . . 118 

Hexapterata, Lobopbora . 54 

Imbutata, Carsia . . . 102 

Immanata, Cidaria . 85, 118 

Impluviata, Ypsipetes . . 66 

Innotata, Eupithecia . . 35 

Irriguata, Eupitbecia . . 30 

Jasioneata, Eupithecia . 26 

Juniperata, Tbera . . 60 

Lapidata, Phibalapteryx . 76 

Lariciata, Eupitbecia . 29, 118 

Lignata, Phibalapteryx . 78 

Linariata, Eupitbecia . . 117 

Lineolata, Eubolia . . 98 

Lobulata, Lobopbora . .118 

Mensuraria, Eubolia . . 96 
Miata, Cidaria ... 81 

Montanata, Melanippe . . 118 

Nanata, Eupitbecia . .117 

Nivearia, Litbostege . . 104 

Obeliscata, Thera ... 62 

Obliquaria, Cbesias . . 107 



Picata, Cidaria 
Pimpinellata, Eupithecia 
Plumbeolata, Eupithecia 
Populata, Cidaria 
Propugnata, Coremia . 
Prunata, Cidaria . 
Pulchellata, Eupithecia 
Pumilata, Eupithecia . 
Pygmaeata, Eupithecia 
Pyraliata, Cidaria 

Quadrifasciaria, Coremia 

Rectangulata, Eupithecia 
Reticulata, Cidaria 
Ruberaria, Ypsipetes . 
Rubidata, Anticlea 
Russata, Cidaria . 






























. . 


. 83, 






. 107, 








Sacraria, Sterrha . 
Sagittata, Cidaria 
Simulata, Thera . 
Sparsata, Collix ' . 
Spartiata, Chesias 
Subciliata, Eupithecia 
Subfulvata, Eupithecia 
Subnotata, Eupithecia 
Succenturiata, Eupithecia 22, 117 
Suffumata, Cidaria . . 89 

Taeniata, Emmelesia . . 7 
Togata, Eupithecia . 48, 118 

Unifasciata, Emmelesia 9, 117 

Variata, Thera . . 62, US 
Yenosata, Eupithecia . . 117 
Yiretata, Lobophora . . 56 







Family Larentidje. 

Emmelesia affinitata 1 

. CXXVIII, fig. 1 

,, alchemillata 


. CXXVIII, fig. 2 

,, albulata 


. CXXVIII, fig. 3 

,, decolorata 


. CXXVIII, fig. 4 

ta3niata . 


,. unifasciata 


. CXXVIII, fig. 5 

,, blandiata 


. CXXVIII, fig. 6 

Eupithecia venosata 

CXXIX, fig. 1 

,, consignata 


CXXIX, fig. 2 

„ linariata 

CXXIX, fig. 3 

,, pulchellata 


CXXIX, fig. 4 

,, centaureata . 


CXXX, fig. 1 

., succentnriata . 


CXXX, fig. 2 

,. subfulvata 

CXXX, fig. 3 

„ subumbrata 

CXXX, fig. 4 

,, plumbeolata 

. 23 

CXXX, fig. 5 

,, hawortliiata 

CXXXI, fig. 1 

,, pygmseata 


CXXXI, fig. 2 

,, helveticaria 

CXXXI, fig. 3 

,, satyrata . 

CXXXI, fig. 4 

,, castigata 

CXXXI, fig. 5 

,, pusillata 

CXXXII, fig. 3 

,, trisignata 

. CXXXII, fig. 1 

„ jasioneata 

. 26 

CXXXI, fig. 6 

„ virgaureata 

.. CXXXII, fig. 2 






Family Larentid^e (continued) — 

Eupithecia lariciata . 

. 29 

CXXXY, fig. 1 

„ irriguata 

. 30 

CXXXII, fig. 4 

„ fraxinata 

. 32 

... CXXXII, fig. 8 

„ valerian ata 

CXXXII, fig. 7 

„ denotata (pimpinellata) 


.. CXXXII, fig. 6 

„ innotata . 


. CXXXVI. fig. 6 

., indigata . 

.. CXXXIII, fig. 1 

,, constrictata . 

. . OXXXIII, fig. 2 

,, nanata . 

.. CXXXIII, fig. 3 

,, subnotata 

.. CXXXIII, fig. 4 

,, extensaria 

. 39 

,, campanulata . 

. 43 

... CXXXII, fig. 5 

,, vulgata . 

... CXXXIII, fig. 5 

,, albipunctata . 

... CXXXIII, fig. 6 

,, expallidata 

.. CXXXIII, fig. 7 

,, absynthiata . 

.. CXXXIV, fig. 1 

,, minutata 

.. CXXXIY, fig. 2 

,, assimilata 

.. CXXXIV, fig. 3 

,, tenuiata . 

.. CXXXIV, fig. 4 

,, subciliata 


..' CXXXIV, fig. 5 

„ dodoneata 

CXXXV, fig. 2 

„ abbreviata 

.. CXXXV, fig. 3 

,, exiguata. 

CXXXV, fig. 4 

„ sobrinata 

CXXXV, fig. 5 

,, togata 


.. CXXXVI, fig. 1 

,, pumilata 

. 52 

.. CXXXVI, fig. 2 

,, coronata 

.. CXXXVI, fig. 3 

„ rectangulata . 

.. CXXXVI, fig. 4 

,, debiliata 

... CXXXVI, fig. 5 

Collix sparsata .... 


.. CXXXVII, fig. 1 

Lobophora sexalisata 

.. CXXXVII, fig. 2 

,, hexapterata . 


... CXXXVII, fig. 3 

„ viretata . 


.. CXXXVII, fig. 4 

,, lobulata . 

.. CXXXVII, fig. 5 

„ polycommata . 

.. CXXXVII, fig. 6 

Thera juniperata . 


.. CXXX VIII, fig. 1 

„ conii'erata (simulata) 


.. CXXXVIII, fig. 2 

„ variata (obeli.?cata) 


.. CXXXVIII, fig. 3 

„ firmaria . 


..CXXXVIII, fig. 4 

Ypsipetes ruberaria . 


..CXXXVIII, fig. 5 

„ impluviata 


..CXXXVIII, fig. 6 

,, elutata 

..CXXXVIII, fig. 7 

Melanthia rubiginata 

.. CXXXIX, fig. 1 





Family Larentid^ (continued) — 

Melanthia ocellata . 

... CXXXIX, fig. 2 



... CXXXIX, fig. 3 

Melanippe hastata . 

... CXXXIX, fig. 4 


tristata . 

... CXXXIX, fig. 5 



... CXXXIX, fig. 6 



... CXXXIX, fig. 7 


rivata . 

... CXXXIX, fig. 8 


subtristata (biriviata) 

... CXXXIX, fig. 9 



... CXXXIX, fig. 10 


galiata . 

... CXXXIX, fig. 11 


fiuctuata . 

... CXXXIX, fig. 12 

Anticlea sinuata . 

CXL, fig. 1 


rubidata . 

CXL, fig. 2 


badiata . 

CXL, fig. 3 


derivata . 

CXL, fig. 4 


berberata . 

CXL, fig. 5 

Coremia munitata . 

CXL, fig. 6 




CXL, fig. 7 


ferrugaria . 

CXL, fig. 8 



CXL, fig. 9 


quadrif'asciaria . 


CXL, fig. 10 


gramma bilineata 


CXLI, fig. 1 


, fluviata . 


CXLI, fig. 2 


pteryx tersata 

CXLI, fig. 3 


lapidata . 


CXLI, fig. 4 



. 78 

CXLI, fig. 5 


vitalbata . 

CXLI, fig. 6 

Scotosia dubitata 

CXLII, fig. 1 



CXLII, fig. 2 


rhamnata . 

CXLII, fig. 3 



CXLII, fig. 4 



CXLII, fig. 5 



CXLII, fig. 6 


miata . 

. 81 

CXLII, fig. 7 


picata . 

. 82 

CXLII, fig. 8 



CXLII, fig. 9 



. 83 

CXLIII, fig. 1 



. 85 

CXL1II, fig. 2 



. 85 

CXLIII, fig. 3 



. 89 

CXLIII, fig. 4 

) > 


CXLIII, fig. 6 



. 89 

CXLIII, fig. 5 





CXLIV, fig. 1 



Family Larentidje {continued) — 
Cidaria testata . 

., populafa 

„ fnl vat a . 

„ pyraliata 

,, dofcata . 
Pelurga comitata 
Eubolia cerviiiata 

,, mensuravia 

,, plumbaria 

,, bipunctaria 

,, lineolata 
Carsia imbutata 
Anaitis plagiaria 
Lithostege niveavia 
Chesias spartiata 

„ obliquaria 
Odezia chserophyllata 
Sterrha sacraria 



CXLIV, fig. 2 


CXLIY, fig. 3 


CXLIV, fig. 4 

CXLIV, fig. 5 

CXLIV, fig. 6 

CXLIV, fig. 7 

CXLV, fig. 1 


CXLV, fig. 2 

CXLV, fig 3 


CXLV, fig. 4 


CXLV, fig. 5 


CXLVI, fig. 1 

CXLVI, fig. 2 


CXLVI, fig. 3 


CXLVI, fig. 4 


CXLVI, fig. 5 


CXLVI, fig. 6 

110 Vol. VII, 

CXXIII, fig. 3 

Diantbascia albimacula 
Boletobia fuliginaria 
Acidalia ochrata 
Lythria purpuravia . 
Cheimatobia brumata 
Oporabia dilutata . 
„ autumnaria 


Vol. VI, p. 3 

Vol. VII, p. 47 

Vol. VII, p. 80 

Vol. VII, p. 144 

Vol. VII, p. 160 

Vol. VII, p. 161 

Vol. VII, p. 163 

CXLVII, fig. 1 
CXLVII, fig. 2 
CXLVII, fig. 3 
CXLVII, fig. 4 
CXLVII, fig. 5 
CXLVII, fig. 6 
CXLVII, fig. 7 
CXLVII, fig. 8 


Emmelesia affinitata. 

1, la, larvae after final moult ; in seed-pods of 
Lychnis diurna, 27th July, 19th August, 1878 ; 
moths emerged 14th July to 4th August, 1879, and 
5th July, 1880. 

See pp. 1 — 3. 

Emmelesia alchemillata. 

2, 2 a, larva? after final moult ; on flowers and 
seeds of hemp-nettle, Galeopsis tetrahit, 11th Sep- 
tember, 1862 ; imago emerged 18th June, 1863. 

See pp. 3—4 

Emmelesia albulata. 

3, 3 a, larva? after final moult ; in seeds of yellow- 
rattle, 26th June, 1865, and 1st August, 1867 ; 
imago emerged 9th June, 1866. 

See pp. 4 — 5. 

Emmelesia decolokata. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, 4 d, 4 e, larva? after final moult ; on 
seeds and barren heads of Lychnis, 4th to 25th 
July, 1861 ; imagos emerged 12th May and 8th 
June, 1862 ; also in male flower-buds of Lychnis 
dioica, 2nd August, 1864 ; imasros emerged 9th to 
15th June, 1865. 

See pp. 5 — 7. 

Plate CUVIII. 




5 a 



AJ.Wende! htfc 


P.WM Trap imp. 

PLATE CXXVIII— continued. 

Emmelesia unifasciata. 

5, b a, hb, 5 c, larvae after final moult ; 5 d, en- 
larged details of segments ; on seeds of Bartsia odon- 
tites, 20 th October, 1869 ; imago emerged 3rd 
August, 1870. 

See pp. 9 — 13. 

Emmelesia blandiata. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, 6 c, larva? in various stages ; 6 d, 6 e, 
enlarged details of segments ; in seed-pods of Eu- 
phrasia officinalis, 4th to 13th September, 1880 ; 
imago emerged 14th August, 1881 ; also 29th August 
to 3rd September, 1881. 

See pp. 13 — 18. 



1, 1 n, lb, larvae after final moult; in seeds of 
Silene infiata, 26th July, 1860, 3rd August, 1864, 
and 4th July, 1868. 


2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvae after final moult ; 2, on apple 
leaves, 6th Julv, 1867; moth emerged 5th May, 
1868; 2 a, 25th June, 1872; 2 b, 2 c, beaten from 
hawthorn, 10th July, 1868. 

See pp. 18—20. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3d, 3 e, 3 /, 3 g, 3 A, larvae in various 
stages ; on flowers of yellow toadflax, 17th Septem- 
ber, 1859, 15th August, 1861, and 12th and 13th 
August^ 1864. 


4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, 4 d, 4 e, 4/, larvas after final moult ; 
on flowers and seeds of foxglove, 9th to 13th July, 

See pp. 20-21. 

Plate CXXK. 

3 a 








4 a 

4 c 

4f! Iith 


Plate CXH. 

ia m ic 



le V lg 



- m 

x l 7 } 

.U.Wendel IitTi. 

PW.M. Trap imp. 




1, 1 a, I b, 1 c, 1 d, 1 e, 1 /, 1 #, 1 h, 1 i, 1 j, larvae 
in various stages ; I £, enlarged details of segments ; 
on flowers of garden golden-rod, September, 1864 ; 
on clematis and mignonette ; 1, on Artemisia cam- 
pestris ; 1 d, on ragwort and flowers of Pimpinella 
saxifraga, 17th September, 1861 ; 1 i, on Silaus pra- 
tensi*, 28th August, 1873, moth emerging 2nd June, 

See p. 22. 


2, 2 a, 2 b, larvaa after final moult ; 2 c, enlarged 
details of segments ; on Artemisia vulgaris, from 
Exeter, 11th October, 1860 ; it fed on the leaflets, 
eating only the upper green outside; also 17th 
October, 1874. 

See pp. 22—23. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3d, larvae in various stages ; 3 e, 
3 f, enlarged details of segments ; 13th September, 

1859 ; on yarrow, 20th October and 12th November, 

1860 ; on yarrow seeds, 22nd October, 1872, imago 
emerging 23rd July, 1873 ; 2nd October, 1874, 
imago emerging 23rd June, 1875. 

PLATE CXXX— continued. 


4, 4 a, larvae after final moult ; on low-growing 
flowers, 29th August, 1860. 


5, 5 a, 5 6, 5 c, larvae after final moult ; on flowers 
of Melampyrum pratense, 15th to 24th July, 1865. 

See pp. 23—25. 

Plate CXXXI 

la h lb 


rap imp. 



Bqpithecia haworthiata. 

1, la, 16, larvae in various stages ; on wild 
clematis flowers, 16th August, 18G0. 


2, 2 a, larva3 after final moult ; 2 6, enlarged 
details of segments ; on flowers of Stellaria holostea, 
20th to 24th June, 1872, imago emerging 1st June, 

See pp. 25 — 26. 


3, 3 a, 3 6, larvae after final moult ; on juniper, 
21st September, 1860, and 1862 ; 4th September, 
1871, imago emerging 10th April, 1872. 


4, 4 a, 4 6, 4 c, 4 d, 4 e, 4/, larvae after final moult ; 
on Hieracium and other low-growing flowers, 24th 
August, 1860 ; on Erodium cicutarium, 20th July, 
1867 ; on sallow and knotgrass, 16th July, 1874, 
imago emerging 9th May, 1875. 


5, 5 a, 5 6, 5 c, larvae after final moult ; 5 d, en- 
larged details of segments ; on flowers of yarrow, 
16th August, 1860 ; on mugwort, 11th September, 
1862 ; on Cheer ophyllum temulentum, July, 1862 ; 
5 c and 5 a 7 , on heather, 3rd October, 1873, imago 
emerging 28th May, 1874. 

PLATE CXXXI— continued. 


6, 6 a, larvae after final moult ; 6 b, enlarged 
details of segments ; on seed-heads of Jasione mon- 
tana, 22nd, 25th, and 26th September, 1879; imago 
reared 1st July, 1881, from larvae taken in 1880. 

See pp. 26—29. 

Plate CXXM 

A-IWenis] lith. 

W. BUCKLER del. 

PWM.Trap imp 



1 , la, lb, 1 c, larvae after final moult ; on flowers 
of Angelica sylvestris, 5th September, 1861 ; and on 
elder flowers, 30th June, 1870. 


2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvae after final moult ; 2 d, en- 
larged details of segments ; on flowers of Senecio 
jacobcea, 28th September and 18th October, 1860 ; 
on flowers of ling, 8th October, 1861 ; and on flowers 
of golden-rod, 2nd October, 1873. 


3, 3 a, larvae after final moult ; on spruce fir, 6th 
July, 1861. 


4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae after final moult ; on oak, 23rd 
June, 1870, imago emerging 24th April, 1871 ; 
another larva 10th June, 1871, imago emerging 9th 
April, 1872 ; and 25th June, 1862. 

See pp. 30—32. 


5, 5 a, bb, 5 c, larvae after final moult ; in flowers 
and seeds of Campanula trachelium, 19th August, 
1864 ; imagos emerged 8th June to 1st July, 1865. 

See pp. 43 — 45. 

PLATE CXXXII— continued. 


6, 6 a, 6 b, 6 c, larvae after final moult ; on Pim- 
pinella saxifraga, 22nd September and 25th October, 
1860 ; also 9th October, 1873, imas;o appearing 17th 
July, 1874. 

See pp. 33 — 34. 


7, 7 a, larva? in various stages of growth ; on 
flowers of Valeriana officinalis, 24th July, 1861 ; 
imagos appeared 14th and 24th June, 1862. 


8, 8 a, 8 b, 8 c, larva? after final moult ; on ash ; 
19th September, 1861, 18th August, 1863, 16th 
July, 1864, 21st July, 1864; imagos appeared 25th 
to 29th May, 1865. 

See pp. 32—33. 

Plate CXXm. 



3 a 

3b V 

4 M 4a, 

6d ■ 6 




AJ.Wmdel hth. 

rap imp. 




1,1a, larvae after final moult ; on cypress, 18th 
July, 1862. 


2, larva after final moult ; on wild thyme, 6th 
September, 1860; imago 6th July, 1860 [? 1861]. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae after final moult ; 3 o\ enlarged 
details of segments ; on Calluna vulgaris, 15th Sep- 
tember, 1860, 12th and 23rd September, 1861, and 
6th and 10th October, 1874. 


4, 4 a, larvae after final moult ; on flowers and 
seeds of Atriplex patula, 4th September, 1861. 


5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
on flowers of Chwrophyllum temulentum and on haw- 
thorn, 3rd August, 1860, and 25th September, 1862. 


6, 6 a, 6 6, 6 c, 6 d, 6 e, 6/, larvae after final moult ; 
on flowers and seeds of Angelica sylvestris, 12th 
September, 1861. 

PLATE CXXXIU— continued. 


7, 7 a, 7 b, 7 c, 7 <i, 7 £, larvae in various stages ; 7/, 
7 <7, enlarged details of segments ; on flowers of 
Senecio jacobcea, 10th October, 1860 ; on golden-rod, 
6 th September, 1861, and September and 2nd 
October, 1873 ; imago emerged 2nd July, 1874. 

Plate CXXXIV. 








2 A 


3 c 


5 b 


P 'MI Trap imp. 



Etjpithecia absynthiata. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, Id, I e, If, 1 g, 1 A, 1 «, larvae in 
various stages of growth ; 1 j, enlarged details of 
segments; on flowers of Senecio jacobcea, 18th Sep- 
tember, 1860 ; on golden -rod, 12th September, 1863 ; 
two on tansy, 7th September, 1869 ; imago appeared 
12th July, 1870 ; on ragwort, 6th September, 1873 ; 
imagos appeared 10th to 20th June, 1874. 


2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2d, larvae after final moult ; 2 e, 
enlarged details of segment ; on yarrow flowers, 
24th August, 1860, and 25th September, 1861 ; 2nd 
October, 1874, imago appearing 7th July, 1875. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
on wild hop, 14th September, 1860 ; on currant, 5th 
and 8th October, 1861 ; and on hop, 11th October, 


4, 4 a, larvae in various stages of growth ; on sallow 
catkins, 13th April, 1861. 


5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; 5 b, enlarged 
details of segments ; on maple, 3rd to 1 7th May, 
imagos emerging 13th July. to 1st August, 1872. 

See pp. 45 — 47. 



1, la, 1 b, 1 c, la 7 , larvae in various stages ; on 
larch, 16th to 19th July, 1864; images emerged 
28th April to 4th May, 1865. 

See pp. 29—30. 


2, 2 a, 2 b, larva? in various stages of growth ; on 
oak, 2nd July, 1861. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larva? in various stages of growth ; 
on oak, 19th June, 1860, and 17th May, 1862. 


4, 4 a, 4 6, 4 c, larva? after final moult ; on white- 
thorn, 24th August, 1860 ; on dogwood, 3rd October, 
1860; and 3rd October, 1874. 


5, 5 a, 5 &, 5 c, 5 a 7 , 5 e y 5/, 5 a, 5 A, 5 i, larva? in 
various stages of growth ; on juniper, 6th May, 

Plate CXXXV. 



5 a 







EWTrsp imp 

Plate CXXXVI. 


4 mj 4 a i 




EWM.Trap imp. 




1, la, larvae after final moult; 1, in buds of 
spruce fir, 21st and 23rd August, 1872 ; imago 
emerged 13th June, 1873 ; 1 a, part of a spruce fir 
cone showing ravages of two larva?, from Dupplin, 
8th September, 1875 ; S and ? moths out 3rd June, 

See pp. 48 — 52. 


2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2d, 2 e, 2 f, 2 g, larvae in various 
stages; 16th September, 1859; one in arbutus 
flowers, 17th October, 1868 ; three on holly flowers, 
6th and 9th June, 1874 ; imagos emerged 30th 
June, 1874. 

See pp. 52 — 53. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae after final moult ; 3 d, en- 
larged details of segment of 3 c ; on flowers of Cle- 
matis vitalba, 6th September, 1860 ; and on Arte- 
misia vulgaris, 23rd September, 1862; 3 c, 3 a 7 , on 
flowers of Angelica sylvestris, 1st September, 1873 ; 
moths emerging 7th to 10th April, 1874. 


4, 4 a, larvae after final moult ; on apple blossom. 
18th May, 1861. 

PLATE CXXXVI— continued. 


5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; on whortleberry, 
13th May, 1863 ; 11th May, 1864, partially spinning 
the leaves together and feeding between them ; 
imago emerged 20th June, 1864. 


6, larva after final moult ; 6 a, enlarged details of 
segments ; on flowers and seeds of Artemisia vul- 
garis, from Rev. John Hellins, 23rd October, 1883 ; 
died 22nd November, 1883. 

See pp. 35 — 39. 

Plate OHXVII. 







Trap imp. 




1,1a, larvae after final moult ; on Lysimachia vul- 
garis^ 7th August, 1868, and 25th August, 1876. 

See pp. 53 — 54. 


2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, larvae after final moult ; on sallow, 
6th September, 1861, 13th September, 1862, and 
27th July, 1864 ; imagos appeared 20th to 29th 
May, 1865. 


3, 3 a, larvae after final moult ; on poplar, 2nd 
July, 1862 ; on aspen, 10th July, 1868 ; imago 
emerged 1st June, 1869. 

See pp. 54 — 56. 


4, 4 a, 4 6, larvae after final moult ; 4 c, 4 d, a little 
magnified; on privet, 29th and 30th June, 1865, 
imago emerging 9th May, 1866 ; one 13th July, 
imago out 20th August, 1875 ; one on ivy blossom 
buds found 8th, figured 18th September, 1875 ; 
moth reared 6th May, 1876; 46 on Viburnum 
opulus, feeding first on the flowers, then on the 
leaves, 2nd July, 1878. 

See pp. 56 — 60. 

PLATE CXXXVII— continued. 


5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; on sallow, 6 th 
June, 1860 ; imago emerged 25th February, 1861 ; 
on sallow, 11th June, 1864; imago emerged 9th 
April, 1865. 


6, 6 a, larvaa after final moult ; on honeysuckle, 
30th May, 1864, imago appearing 20th April, 1865 ; 
on ash, 16th June, 1864,, imago appearing 18th 
April, 1865 ; on privet, 4th June, 1864, imago ap- 
pearing 28th April, 1865. 



AJ.Wendel hth. 

fray imp. 

W. BUCKLER del. 


Thera juniperata. 

1, la, larvae after final moult; on juniper, 1st 
June, 1861 ; several on juniper, 19th and 23rd 
August, 1872 ; imagos appeared 27th and 28th 
September and 2nd October, 1872. 

See pp. 60 — 61. 

Thera con iee rata (simulata). 

2, 2 a, larvae after final moult, from Westmoreland ; 
on juniper, 13th June, 1863 ; imago appeared 9th 
July, 1863 ; on juniper, 2nd July, 1867. 

See pp. 61 — 62. 

Thera variata. 

3, 3 «, larvae after final moult ; 3 b, pupa, figured 
14th June; on larch, 31st August, 1861 ; 1st May, 
1862 ; imago appeared 13th July, 1862 ; on Scotch 
fir, 12th May, 1866. 

See p. 62. 

Thera firmaria. 

4, 4 a, larvae after final moult ; on Scotch fir, 12th 
May, 1866. 

See p. 63. 

Ypsipetes ruberaria. 

5, larva after final moult ; on mealy velvety wood 
sallow, between doubled leaves, 22nd June, 1865. 

See pp. 63 — 66. 

PLATE CXXXVIII— continued. 

Ypsipetes impluviata. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, larva? in various stages of growth ; in 
curled-up leaves of alder, 11th, 22nd and 23rd Sep- 
tember, 1867 ; imago appeared 22nd May, 1868. 

See pp. 66 — 68. 

Ypsipetes elutata. 

7, 7 a, larva? after final moult ; on sallow, 17th 
May, 1859, and 16th May, 1862 ; imago reared 29th 
June, 1862. 

Plate CXXXIX. 





Melanthia rubiginata. 

1, larva after final moult ; on alder, 27th May. 

Melanthia ocbllata. 

2, 2 a, larvae in various stages of growth ; on Galium 
mollugo, 10th August, 1867. 

Melanthia albicillata. 

3, 3 a, larva) after final moult ; on raspberry, 15th 
September, 1860; on bramble, 13th July, 1867; 
imagos reared 18th and 21st May, 1868. 

Melanippe hastata. 

4, larva after final moult ; 27th August, 1859. 

Melanippe tristata. 

5, larva after final moult ; on Galium molluqo, 1st 
August, 1860. 

Melanippe prooellata. 

6, larva after final moult; on clematis, 16th Sep- 
tember, 1859. 

Melanippe unangulata. 

7, 7 a, larvae after final moult ; 31st July, 1859. 

Melanippe rivata. 

8, 8 a, larvae after final moult ; on Galium molluqo \ 
22nd July, 1859, and 13th August, 1862. 

PLATE C XXXIX— continued. 

Melanlppe subtristata (biriviata). 

9, 9 a, larvae after final moult ; on Galium mollugo, 
30th June, 1859 ; 9 a, variety. 

Melanippe montanata. 

10, 10 a, 10 b, larvae in various stages ; on prim- 
rose leaves, 24th March, 1860, and 12th April, 

Melanippe galtata. 

11, 11a, 11 b, larvae after final moult; 3rd Sep- 
tember, 1859, and 25th August, 1860 ; 11 6, variety. 

Melanippe fluctuata. 

12, 12 a, larvae after final moult ; 8th September, 

Plate CXL. 

3 h 





-4 ■+ a 



10 Id 

AJ.Wendel hth. 

ETOlTraj imja 



Anticlea sinuata. 

1,1a, larva3 after final moult ; on Galium verum, 
2nd September, 1861 ; and on unripe seeds of 
Galium mollugo, 13th September, 1867; imago reared 
18th June, 1868. 


2,2 a, larvae after final moult ; on Galium mollugo, 
8th August, 1860. 

Anticlea badiata. 

3, 3 a, 3 6, larvae after final moult ; on various 
kinds of rose, 22nd May, 1860, and 5th July, 1862. 

Anticlea dkrivata. 

4, 4 a, larvae after final moult ; on flowers of dog- 
rose, 27th June, 1862. 

Anticlea berberata. 

5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; on barberry, 9th 
July and 25th September, 1863. 


6, larva after final moult ; on groundsel, 14th 
February, 1862. 


7, larva after final moult ; on cabbage, 7th July, 

See pp. 68—70. 

PLATE CXL— continued. 


8, 8 a, 8 b, 8 c, larvse in various stages ; on ground- 
ivy ; 8th September, 1859, 7th July, 1860, 25th 
June, 1863, and 4th November, 1864. 


9, 9 a, 9 6, 9 c, larva? after final moult ; on ground- 
ivy; double-brooded; 20th October, 1860, 18th July, 
1863, and 22nd August, 1865. 


10, 10 a, 10 6, larvae in various stages; on groundsel, 
12th April, 1864 ; imago out, 11th June, 1864 ; 10 b, 
6th March, 1868, imago appearing 6th June, 1868. 

See pp. 70—71. 

Plate CXLI. 


3 a. 

3 c \« 




P.Y/.MTrap imp. 


Camptogramma bilineata. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, 1 d, larra after final moult ; on 
duckweed, 18th April, 1861 ; on grass, 12th April, 
imago appearing 10th June, 1864; on grass, 17th 
April, 1863, and 1865 ; 1 b, on grass and cliickweed, 
22nd April, imago appearing 25th June, 1871 ; 1 d, 
30th April, 1866. 

See pp. 71—72. 

Camptogramma eluviata. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, 2 e, iarva3 in various stages ; 
on groundsel, 24th August, 1860, and 30th Sep- 
tember, 1862 ; the yellow (figure not here repro- 
duced) and brown (2 d) varieties, 19th September, 
1867 ; imagos emerged 18th to 23rd October, 1867. 

See pp. 72—76. 

Phibalapteryx tersata. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvse after final moult ; on 
clematis, 7th August, 1861 ; 21st August, 1865, 
imago appearing 26th June, 1866 ; 5th August, 

Phibalapteryx lapidata. 

4, 4 a, larvae after final moult ; reared from eggs 
laid iu Ireland; fed on Clematis vitalba, 21st June, 

See pp. 76—78. 

PLATE CXLI- continued. 

Phibalapteryx ltgnata. 

5, 5 a 9 5 b, larvae after final moult ; on Galium 
mollugo, 31st March, 1863 ; on small-leaved cle- 
matis, 29th July, 1864 ; and on Galium saxatile, 
4th August, imago appearing 20th August, 1870. 

See pp. 78—81. 

Phibalapteryx vitalbata. 

6, 6 a, larvas after final moult ; on clematis ; 20th 
July and 3rd August, 1861, imago appearing 31st 
May, 1862 ; October and 19th November, 1864. 

Plate CXLII. 

AJ.Wendel litli. 





.1 , larva after final moult ; on buckthorn, 24th 
June, imago appearing 25th July, 1861. 


2, larva after final moult ; on buckthorn, feeding 
between the drawn-together top leaves, 5th June, 
imago appearing 7th July, 1861. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvae after final moult; 3, on 
buckthorn, 5th June, imago appearing 9th July, 
1861; 3 6, dark variety, 10th May, imago appear- 
ing 16th June, 1865 ; 3 a, 16th May, imago appear- 
ing 7th July, 1865 ; 3 c, 21st May, imago appearing 
9th July, 1865. 


4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae in various stages ; feeding 
between leaves of barberry; 8th July, 1863, and 
4th July, 1864; imagos emerged 8th to 19th May, 


5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae in various stages ; in united 
sallow leaves, 10th August, 1867, imago emerging 
9th June, 1868 ; between spun-together leaves of 
sallow, 10th September, 1867 ; 5, between united 
leaves of aspen, 12th September, 1867. 

PLATE CXLII— continued. 


6, 6 a, 6 b, larvae after final moult ; on oak. 
24th July and 15th August, 1863 ; imago emerged 
2nd September, 1863 


7, 7 a, 7 b, larvae after final moult ; on alder, 4th 
July, 1861 ; and on willow, 22nd June, 1864. 

See pp. 81—82. 


8, larva after final moult ; on duckweed, 3rd 
September, 1801. 

See pp. 82—83. 


9, 9 a, 9 b, 9 c 9 larvae after final moult; 12th 
September, 1859, and 17th September, 1863. 

Plate CXLHI. 

5 a 

ir'i f\ 

5 c 


F.WM.Trap imp. 

W. BUCKLER del. 



1, la, larvae after final moult; on water-rue, 
Thalictrum aquilegifolium, and on Th. flavum, 20th 
August, 18G3 ; imagos emerged from end of June 
to 15th July, 1861 

See pp. 83—85. 


2, 2 <(, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, 2 e, larvae in various stages ; 
on sallow, 1st April, imagos emerging 20th May, 
1861; 16th to 20th July, 1864; 2e, on oak, 18th 
July, 1861. 

See p. 85. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae after final moult ; 3, from var. 
marmorata ; 3 a and 3 b, from dark northern varie- 
ties ; on wild strawberry, 20th to 30th May, 8th 
June, and 12th July, 1864. 

See pp. 85—88. 


4, 4 a, 4 b, larvae after final moult ; on Galium 
mollugo, 7th July, 1860, imago appearing 20th 
April, 1861 ; and on G, aparine, 23rd June, 1864. 

See p. 89. 


5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, larvse in various stages ; on seeds, 
flowers, and leaves of Impatiens noli-me-tangere, 

PLATE CXLIII— continued. 

31st August, 6th, 8th, 9th, and 13th September, 


See pp. 89—93. 


6, 6 a, 6 b, larvae after final moult; on small 
willow-herb, 6th August, 1860, 17th September, 
1863, and 8th September, 1864. 

Plate CXLIV. 

A J Wendellith. 

EWM.Trap imp. 




1, 1 a, larvae after final moult; on gooseberry, 
28th May, imago emerging 5th July, 1862; and on 
red currant, 2nd June, imago emerging 5th July, 


2, 2 a, larvae after final moult ; 2, on sallow, 
13th August, imago emerging 24th September., 
1861 ; 2 a, on heather, Scotland, 11th July, imago 
emerging 10th September, 1869 ; some larvae were 
much paler in colouring [than those figured]. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3d, larvae after final moult; on 
sallow, 14th May, 1861, and on bilberry, 8th May, 

See pp. 93—94. 


4, 4 a, larvae after final moult ; on rose, 7th May, 

See p. 95. 


5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; on Galium aparine, 
4th, 9th, and 10th June, 1864; imagos emerged 
24th July to 15th August, 1864. 


PLATE OXLIV— continued. 


6, 6 a, larvse after final moult ; on red currant, 
29th April, 1862, and 27th May, 1864; imagos 
emerged 20th and 21st June, 1864. 

Pelurga comltata. 

7, 7 a, 7 b, larvae after final moult; on Atriplex 
and Ghenopodium, 11th September, 1862, and 
12th September, 1863. 

Plate CXLV. 


q+re 4 b 



EWMTrap imp. 



1, la, lb, larvse in various stages of growth ; on 
mallow, 8th June, I860, 8th July, 1861, and 24th 
May, 1866; imago emerged 24th September, 1861. 


2, 2a, larvae after final moult; on grass, clover, 
etc., 27th June, ima^o emerging 17th August, 

See p. 96. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, larvse after final moult ; on 
Genista anglica, 3rd May, and on broom, 8th May, 
1865, imagos emerging 9th to 15th June, 1865; 
also 20th May, imago emerging 6th June, 1868. 


4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvos after final moult ; on clover 
and Lotus corniculatus, 11th May, imago emerging 
5th July, 1868; 4 c, 16th May, 1866. 

See pp. 97—98. 


5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 .c, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
on Galium saxatile and G. verum, 25th June, 1863, 
and 17th September, 1872. 

See pp. 98—101. 

Plate CXLVI. 

A J.Weniel litli. 


f WMTrap imp. 


Carsia imbutata. 

1, la, larvae after final moult; on Vaccinium 
oxycoccos, 8th June, 1872; imago emerged 10th 
July, 1872; reared from the eggs and bred by Rev. 
John Hellins. 

See pp. 102—104. 

ANA1T[S plagiaria. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2c, 2d, larvae in various stages of 
growth; on Hypericum; 23rd July, 1861; one 
found mature, 21st April, imago appearing 6th 
June, 1875 ; eighteen on Hypericum, 6th April, 

1866 ; red variety, 6th July, 1874. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; on 
flowers and seeds of Sisymbrium sophia, 13th July, 

1867 ; also on 8. cheiranthoides. 

See pp. 104—106. 

Ohesias spartiata. 

4, \a, 4ib, larvae after final moult ; on flowers of 
broom, 24th May and 3rd June, 1862; and on 
broom, 6th May, 1869. 

See p. 107. 

Ohesias obliquaria. 

5, 5 a, larvae in various stages of growth ; on 
broom, 12th September, 1867; also 6th September, 
1869; imago emerged 16th June, 1870. 

See pp. 107—109. 


6, 6 a, larvae after final moult; on flowers and 
seeds of earth-nut (Bunium fiexuosum), 28th and 
30th May, imagos emerging 27th to 29th June, 

See pp. 109—110. 

Plate CXLW. 


- •.% 




5 a 







1, la, lb, larvas in various stages of growth; on 
seeds of Silene nutans, 19th, 21st, and 25tli July, 
1873, sent by Mr. Stainton; imagos emerged 7th, 
18th, 19th, and 20th June, 1874. 

See Vol. VI, p. 3. 


2, 2 a, larvas after final moult ; on cellar fungus, 
23rd and 24th June, 1882; sent by Mr. W. H. B. 

See Vol. VII, p. 47. 


3, 3 a, larvas after final moult; 3 b, enlargement 
of two segments ; reared from the egg by Mr. W. 
H. Tugwell ; latterly on flowers of Grepis virens, 
2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 8th November, 1880 ; spun up, 
13th; ? imago out 14th December, 1880. 

See Vol. VII, p. 80. 

Lythkia purpuearia. 

4, larva after final moult ; on Bumex aeetosella from 
eggs, from Herr Heinrich Disque, 21st August, 

See Vol. VII, p. 144. 

Cheimatobia buumata. 

5, 5 a, larvas after final moult; 5 b, enlargement 
of two segments ; 25th May, 1881 ; from Rev. John 

See Vol. VII, p. 160. 

PLATE GXLY1I— continued. 

Oporabia dilutata. 

6, larva after final moult; on elm and hawthorn, 
Rev. John Hellins, May, 1881. 

See Vol. VII, p. 161. 

Oporabia autumnaria. 

7, larva after final moult ; Scottish, on oak, Mr. 
Elliot, 5th, 6th June, 1882; Rev. John Hellins 
reared one more of these 7th June, 1883, and bred 
several moths. 

Oporabia filigrammaria. 

8, 8 a, 8 6, larvse in various stages of growth ; 8 c, 
enlargement of two segments ; on heather, willow, 
27th May, young, and 30th May, 10th June, 1881. 

See Vol. VII, p. 163. 

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14 . 

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Warrington Museum and Library, Warrington. 
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Webb, S., Esq., Maidstone House, Dover. 
Wellington College, Berks. 
Welter, Mons. H., 39, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 
Wesley, E. F., Esq., A.K.C., 28, Essex street, Strand, W.C. 
West Kent Natural History Society, Herbert Jones, Esq., F.L.S., Hon. 

Treas., 15, Montpelier B,ow, Blackheath, S.E. 
Whittle, F. G., Esq., 3, Marine Avenue, Southend, Essex. 
Wickes, W. D., Esq., 32, Burlington Gardens, Acton, W. 
Wiltshire, Rev. Professor T., M.A., F.L.S., Secretary, 25, Granville 

park, Lewisham, London, S.E. 
Wood, J. H., Esq., M.B., Tarrington, Ledbury. 
Wright, Professor E. P., F.L.S., Trinity College, Dublin. 

Yale University, New Haven, U.S. 
York Philosophical Society, York. 

Zoological Society, 3, Hanover square, W. 




FEBRUARY, 1899. 



For the First Year, 1844. 

I. Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany. Trans- 

lated by H. E. Strickland, Jun., M.A, F.R.S., E. Lan- 
kester, M.D., F.R.S., and W. B. Macdonald, B.A. 8vo. 

II. Memorials of John Ray : consisting of the Life of John 

Ray, by Derham ; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by 
Baron Cnvier and M. Dupetit Thouars, in the c Biographie 
Universelle j ' Life of Ray, by Sir J. E. Smith : the Itine- 
raries of Ray, with Notes, by Messrs. Babington and 
Yarrell. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part I. Ten Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Second Year, 1845. 

I. Steenstrup on the Alternation of Generations. Translated 

from the German, by George Bask, F.R.S. Three Plates. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part II. Thirteen 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 


III. Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations 
from the German. Translated by W. B. Macdonald, B.A. ; 
G. Busk, F.R.S.; A. Henfrey, F.R.S. ; and J. Hudson, 
B.M. Seven Plates. 8vo. 

For the Third Year, 1846. 

I. Meyen's Geography of Plants. Translated from the German 

by Miss Margaret Johnston. 8vo. 

II. Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites. Translated 

from the German, and edited by Professors T. Bell and 
E. Forbes. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part III. Eleven 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Fourth Year, 1847. 

I. Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy. Translated from 

the German by Alfred Tulk. 8vo. 

II. Reports on the Progress of Zoology. Translated from the 

German by Messrs. Geo. Busk, A. H. Haliday, and A. 
Tulk. 8vo. 

III. A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusae. 
By Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Thirteen Plates. Imp. 

For the Fifth Year, 1848. 

I, Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologiae. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. I. 8vo. 


II. Letters of John Ray. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., 

F.R.S. Two Plates. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca,, 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part IV. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Sixth Year, 1849. 

I. Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical 

Geography. Edited by A. Henfrey, F.R.S. Three Plates. 

II. A Monograph of the British Entomostracous Crustacea. 

By W. Baird, M.D., F.R.S. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 

For the Seventh Year, 1850. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. II. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part V. Fifteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Eighth Year, 1851. 

I. A Monograph of the British Angiocarpous Lichens. By the 

Rev. W. A. Leigh ton, M.A. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. I. Ten Plates. 8vo. 


For the Ninth Year, 1852. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. III. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VI. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Tenth Year, 1853. 

I. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. II. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Volume of Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, in- 

cluding Braun on Rejuvenescence in Nature. Six Plates. 

For the Eleventh Year, 1854. 

Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologiae. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. IV. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 

For the Twelfth Year, 1855, 

A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By 
Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VII. Nine Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 

For the Thirteenth Year, 1856. 

A Monograph of the British Fresh-water Polyzoa. By Pro- 
fessor Allman, F.B.S. Eleven Plates. Imp. 4to. 


For the Fourteenth Year, 1857. 

A Monograph of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain. 
By Professor Williamson, F.R.S. Seven Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Fifteenth Year, 1858. 

The Oceanic Hydrozoa. By Professor Huxley, F.R.S. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Sixteenth Year, 1859. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. Imp. 

For the Seventeenth Year, 1860. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By W. B. 
Carpenter, M.D., F.B,S., F.L.S., &c, assisted by W. K. 
Parker, F.R.S., and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. Twenty- 
two Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Eighteenth Year, 1861. 

On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the 
Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the 
Coniferae. By Dr. Wilhelm Hofmeister. Translated by 
Frederick Currey, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. Sixty-five 
Plates. 8vo. 


For the Nineteenth Year, 1862. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part II. Seventeen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 

For the Twentieth Year, 1863. 

The Reptiles of British India. By Albert C. L. G. Gtinther, 
M.D., F.R.S. Twenty-six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty-first Year, 1864. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadae. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
L.L.P., F.R.S. Vol. I. Thirty-seven Plates. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-second Year, 1865. 

I. The British Hemiptera Heteroptera. By Messrs. J. W. 

Douglas and John Scott. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bower- 

bank, L.L.D., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-third Year, 1866. 

I. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. I, containing Geographico-botanical, 
and Structural, and Physiological Memoirs. Edited by 
J. J. Bennett, F.R.S. 8vo. 


II. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea. By Professors Eschricht, 

Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg. Edited by W. H. Flower, 
F.R.S. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. Nitzch's Pterylography, translated from the German. 
Edited by P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867. 

I. A Monograph on the Structure and Development of the 

Shoulder-girdle. By W. K. Parker, F.R.S. Thirty Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868. 

I. Vegetable Teratology. By M. T. Masters, M.D., F.L.S, 


II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. III. Thirty-eight Plates. Imp. 4to. 
(Completing the work.) 

For the Twenty-sixth Year, 1869. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty-seventh Year, 1870. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part II. Eleven * Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 


For the Twenty-eighth Year, 1871. 

A Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. By Sir J. 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Seventy-eight Plates. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Thirtieth Year, 1873. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. continued. Thirteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Thirty-first Year, 1874. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. III. Ninety-two Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-second Year, 1875. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.RS. Vol. I. Forty-two Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-third Year, 1876. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 


For the Thirty-fourth Year, 1877. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S, Vol. II. Fifty Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. II. Forty-nine Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879. 

I. A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 

M.D., F.L.S. Vol. III. Eleven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the work.) 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By the late 

J. S. Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S. Edited, with additions, 
by Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A., F.L.S. Vol. IV. Seven- 
teen Plates. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 

For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. III. Twenty-eight Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-eighth Year, 1881. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. 
By P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol.1. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 


For the Thirty-ninth Year, ]882. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. IV. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the Work.) 

For the Fortieth Year, 1883. 

British Oribatidse. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. I. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-first Year, 1884. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. II. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-second Year, 1885. 

The Larvse of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. I. 
The Butterflies. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-third Year, 1886. 

The Larvse of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. II. 
The Hawk-Moths and part of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 


For the Forty-fourth Year, 1887. 

British Oribatidse. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. II. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. (Completing the Work.) 

For the Forty-fifth Year, 1888. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stain ton, F.R.S. Vol. III. 
The concluding portion of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-sixth Year, 1889. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. III. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-seventh Year, 1890. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. IV. 
The first portion of the Noctuae. Sixteen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-eighth Year, 1891. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited (in part) by the late H. T. Stainton, 
F.R.S. Vol. V. The second portion of the Noctuae. 
Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 


For the Forty-ninth Year, 1892. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. IV. Nineteen Plates. 8vo. 
(Completing the work.) 

For the Fiftieth Year, 1893. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. VI. The 
third portion of the Noctuae. Nineteen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Fifty-first Year, 1894. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. VII. 
The first portion of the Geometrae. Twenty-two Plates. 

For the Fifty-second Year, 1895. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. VIII. 
The second and concluding portion of the Geometrae. 
Twentv Plates. 8vo. 

For the Fifty-third Year, 1896. 

The Tailless Batrachians of Europe. Part 1. By G. A. 
Boulenger, F.R.S. Ten Plates. 8vo. 


For the Fifty-fourth Year, 1897. 

The Tailless Batrachiaas of Europe. Part II. By G. A. 
Boulenger, F.R.S. Fourteen Plates. 8vo. (Completing 
the work.)